Table 1: The clinically used radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging.

ModalityRadiopharmaceuticalRadionuclideHalf-lifeSourceUptake mechanism

PET [18F Fluorodeoxyglucose 18F109 minCyclotronGlucose transporter
3′-Deoxy-3′- 18F fluorothymidine 18F109 minCyclotronDNA replication
11C-methionine 11C20.4 minCyclotronAmino acid transporter

SPECT 67Ga-citrate 67Ga78.3 hrCyclotronTransferrin receptor
Thallium-201 201Tl73.0 hrCyclotronMultiple factors
(i.e., Na-K-ATPase, non-energy-dependent cotransporter, etc.)
99mTc-sestamibi 99mTc6.0 hrGeneratorP-glycoprotein
99mTc-tetrofosmin 99mTc6.0 hrGeneratorP-glycoprotein
111In-labeled Octreotide 111In67.4 hrCyclotronSomatostatin receptor