About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 629235, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/629235
Research Article

Bisphenol A Modifies the Regulation Exerted by Testosterone on 5α-Reductase Isozymes in Ventral Prostate of Adult Rats

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, Avenida de Madrid s/n, 18012 Granada, Spain
2Institute of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, 18012 Granada, Spain
3Department of Pathology, San Cecilio University Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Granada, 18012 Granada, Spain

Received 30 April 2013; Revised 20 June 2013; Accepted 6 July 2013

Academic Editor: S. L. Mowbray

Copyright © 2013 Pilar Sánchez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. D. Steers, “5α-reductase activity in the prostate,” Urology, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 17–24, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. D. Wilson, “The critical role of androgens in prostate development,” Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 577–590, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. T. Saartok, E. Dahlberg, and J.-A. Gustafsson, “Relative binding affinity of anabolic-androgenic steroids: comparison of the binding to the androgen receptors in skeletal muscle and in prostate, as well as to sex hormone-binding globulin,” Endocrinology, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. 2100–2106, 1984. View at Scopus
  4. M. P. Castelli, A. Casti, A. Casu, et al., “Regional distribution of 5α-reductase type 2 in the adult rat brain: an immunohistochemical analysis,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 281–293, 2013.
  5. J. M. Torres and E. Ortega, “Precise quantitation of steroid 5αλπηα-reductase type 1 mRNA levels by RT-PCR in female rat liver,” Endocrine Research, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 149–157, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. Sánchez, J. M. Torres, R. G. Del Moral, J. De Dios Luna, and E. Ortega, “Steroid 5α-reductase in adult rat brain after neonatal testosterone administration,” IUBMB Life, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 81–86, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Sánchez, J. M. Torres, A. Olmo, F. O'Valle, and E. Ortega, “Effects of environmental stress on mRNA and protein expression levels of steroid 5α-Reductase isozymes in adult rat brain,” Hormones and Behavior, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 348–353, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. M. Torres and E. Ortega, “Differential regulation of steroid 5α-reductase isozymes expression by androgens in the adult rat brain,” FASEB Journal, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1428–1433, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. M. Torres and E. Ortega, “Steroid 5α-reductase isozymes in the adult female rat brain: central role of dihydrotestosterone,” Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 239–245, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. M. Torres, E. Ruiz, and E. Ortega, “Development of a quantitative RT-PCR method to study 5α-reductase mRNA isozymes in rat prostate in different androgen status,” Prostate, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 74–79, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. P. Sánchez, J. M. Torres, B. Castro, et al., “Expression of steroid 5α-reductaseisozymes in prostate of adult rats after environmental stress,” The FEBS Journal, vol. 280, no. 1, pp. 93–101, 2013.
  12. K. Normington and D. W. Russell, “Tissue distribution and kinetic characteristics of rat steroid 5α- reductase isozymes. Evidence for distinct physiological functions,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 267, no. 27, pp. 19548–19554, 1992. View at Scopus
  13. A. E. Thigpen, R. I. Silver, J. M. Guileyardo, M. L. Casey, J. D. McConnell, and D. W. Russell, “Tissue distribution and ontogeny of steroid 5α-reductase isozyme expression,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 903–910, 1993. View at Scopus
  14. A. Lunacek, C. Schwentner, J. Oswald et al., “Fetal distribution of 5α-reductase 1 and 5α-reductase 2, and their input on human prostate development,” Journal of Urology, vol. 178, no. 2, pp. 716–721, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. N. Thomas, R. C. Douglas, R. S. Rittmaster, and C. K. L. Too, “Overexpression of 5α-reductase type 1 increases sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to low concentrations of testosterone,” Prostate, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 595–602, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. W. Xi, C. K. F. Lee, W. S. B. Yeung et al., “Effect of perinatal and postnatal bisphenol A exposure to the regulatory circuits at the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis of CD-1 mice,” Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 409–417, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Teng, B. Goodwin, K. Shockley, et al., “Bisphenol A affects androgen receptor function via multiple mechanisms,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 203, no. 3, pp. 556–564, 2013.
  18. H. J. Lee, S. Chattopadhyay, E.-Y. Gong, R. S. Ahn, and K. Lee, “Antiandrogenic effects of bisphenol A and nonylphenol on the function of androgen receptor,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 40–46, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. Goodson, H. Robin, W. Summerfield, and I. Cooper, “Migration of bisphenol A from can coatings—effects of damage, storage conditions and heating,” Food Additives and Contaminants, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1015–1026, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. N. Olea, R. Pulgar, P. Pérez et al., “Estrogenicity of resin-based composites and sealants used in dentistry,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 298–305, 1996. View at Scopus
  21. B. S. Rubin and A. M. Soto, “Bisphenol A: perinatal exposure and body weight,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 304, no. 1-2, pp. 55–62, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Castro, P. Sánchez, J. M. Torres, et al., “Bisphenol A exposure during adulthood alters expression of aromatase and 5α-reductase isozymes in rat prostate,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 2, Article ID e55905, 2013.
  23. C. Leranth, K. Szigeti-Buck, N. J. MacLusky, and T. Hajszan, “Bisphenol A prevents the synaptogenic response to testosterone in the brain of adult male rats,” Endocrinology, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 988–994, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Fronhoffs, G. Totzke, S. Stier et al., “A method for the rapid construction of cRNA standard curves in quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction,” Molecular and Cellular Probes, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 99–110, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Bortolato, R. Frau, S. C. Godar, et al., “The implication of neuroactive steroids in Tourette syndrome pathogenesis: a role for 5α-reductase?” Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. D. W. Rusell and J. D. Wilson, “Steroid 5 alpha reductase: Two genes/two enzymes,” Annual Review Biochemistry, vol. 63, pp. 25–61, 1994.
  27. J. M. Torres and E. Ortega, “Quantitation of mRNA levels of steroid 5α-reductase isozymes: a novel method that combines quantitative RT-PCR and capillary electrophoresis,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 78–88, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. S. Rubin, “Bisphenol A: an endocrine disruptor with widespread exposure and multiple effects,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 127, no. 1-2, pp. 27–34, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. A. Richter, L. S. Birnbaum, F. Farabollini et al., “In vivo effects of bisphenol A in laboratory rodent studies,” Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 199–224, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. M. Walker and A. C. Gore, “Transgenerational neuroendocrine disruption of reproduction,” Nature Reviews Endocrinology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 197–207, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. T. Takao, W. Nanamiya, I. Nagano, K. Asaba, K. Kawabata, and K. Hashimoto, “Exposure with the environmental estrogen bisphenol A disrupts the male reproductive tract in young mice,” Life Sciences, vol. 65, no. 22, pp. 2351–2357, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. C. Chitra, C. Latchoumycandane, and P. P. Mathur, “Induction of oxidative stress by bisphenol A in the epididymal sperm of rats,” Toxicology, vol. 185, no. 1-2, pp. 119–127, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. de Flora, R. T. Micale, S. La Maestra et al., “Upregulation of clusterin in prostate and DNA damage in spermatozoa from bisphenol A-treated rats and formation of DNA adducts in cultured human prostatic cells,” Toxicological Sciences, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 45–51, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. A. Taylor, C. A. Richter, R. L. Ruhlen, and F. S. Vom Saal, “Estrogenic environmental chemicals and drugs: mechanisms for effects on the developing male urogenital system,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 127, no. 1-2, pp. 83–95, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. T. Akingbemi, C. M. Sottas, A. I. Koulova, G. R. Klinefelter, and M. P. Hardy, “Inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis by the xenoestrogen bisphenol a is associated with reduced pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion and decreased steroidogenic enzyme gene expression in rat leydig cells,” Endocrinology, vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 592–603, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. Ye, B. Zhao, G. Hu, Y. Chu, and R.-S. Ge, “Inhibition of human and rat testicular steroidogenic enzyme activities by bisphenol A,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 207, no. 2, pp. 137–142, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M.-C. Lin, J. Rajfer, R. S. Swerdloff, and N. F. Gonzalez-Cadavid, “Testosterone down-regulates the levels of androgen receptor mRNA in smooth muscle cells from the rat corpora cavernosa via aromatization to estrogens,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 333–343, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. G. Ramos, J. Varayoud, C. Sonnenschein, A. M. Soto, M. Muñoz de Toro, and E. H. Luque, “Prenatal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A alters the periductal stroma and glandular cell function in the rat ventral prostate,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 1271–1277, 2001. View at Scopus
  39. B. G. Timms, K. L. Howdeshell, L. Barton, S. Bradley, C. A. Richter, and F. S. Vom Saal, “Estrogenic chemicals in plastic and oral contraceptives disrupt development of the fetal mouse prostate and urethra,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 19, pp. 7014–7019, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G. S. Prins, W.-Y. Tang, J. Belmonte, and S.-M. Ho, “Perinatal exposure to oestradiol and bisphenol A alters the prostate epigenome and increases susceptibility to carcinogenesis,” Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 134–138, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus