About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 634832, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/634832
Research Article

HyDEn: A Hybrid Steganocryptographic Approach for Data Encryption Using Randomized Error-Correcting DNA Codes

1National Research Council Canada, 100 des Aboiteaux Street, Moncton, NB, E1A 7R1, Canada
2Department of Biology, Université de Moncton, Moncton, NB, E1A 3E9, Canada
3Department of Computer Science, Université de Moncton, Moncton, NB, E1A 3E9, Canada

Received 30 April 2013; Accepted 29 June 2013

Academic Editor: Tai-hoon Kim

Copyright © 2013 Dan Tulpan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. Miller, Telegraphic Code to Insure Privacy and Secrecy in the Transmission of Telegrams, C.M. Cornwell, 1882.
  2. D. Coppersmith, “Data Encryption Standard (DES) and its strength against attacks,” IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 243–250, 1994. View at Scopus
  3. J. Daemen and V. Rijmen, The Design of Rijndael: AES—The Advanced Encryption Standard, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2002.
  4. R. L. Rivest, A. Shamir, and L. Adleman, “A method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 120–126, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Zimmermann, PGP Source Code and Internals, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1995.
  6. C. H. Huang, S. C. Chuang, and J. L. Wu, “Digital invisible ink and its applications in steganography,” in Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Multimedia and Security (MM&Sec '06), pp. 23–28, ACM, New York, NY, USA, September 2006. View at Scopus
  7. E. Cole, Hiding in Plain Sight: Steganography and the Art of Covert Communication, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1st edition, 2003.
  8. I. Cox, M. Miller, J. Bloom, J. Fridrich, and T. Kalker, Digital Watermarking and Steganography, Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 2nd edition, 2007.
  9. C. T. Clelland, V. Risca, and C. Bancroft, “Hiding messages in DNA microdots,” Nature, vol. 399, no. 6736, pp. 533–534, 1999. View at Scopus
  10. T. Morkel, J. H. P. Eloff, and M. S. Olivier, “An overview of image steganography,” in ISSA 2005 New Knowledge Today Conference, J. H. P. Eloff, L. Labuschagne, M. M. Eloff, and H. S. Venter, Eds., pp. 1–11, ISSA, Pretoria, South Africa, 2005.
  11. B. Anckaert, B. D. Sutter, D. Chanet, and K. D. Bosschere, “Steganography for executables and code transformation signatures,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ICISC '04), pp. 425–439, December 2004. View at Scopus
  12. B. Anam, K. Sakib, M. A. Hossain, and K. P. Dahal, Review on the Advancements of DNA Cryptography, CoRR, 2010.
  13. V. I. Risca, “DNA-based steganography,” Cryptologia, vol. 25, pp. 37–49, 2001.
  14. R. W. Hamming, “Error detecting and error correcting codes,” Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 26, pp. 147–160, 1950.
  15. F. MacWilliams and N. Sloane, The Theory of Error-Correcting Codes, North-Holland Publishing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2nd edition, 1978.
  16. N. Aboluion, D. H. Smith, and S. Perkins, “Linear and nonlinear constructions of DNA codes with Hamming distance d, constant GC-content and a reverse-complement constraint,” Discrete Mathematics, vol. 312, no. 5, pp. 1062–1075, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. Montemanni and D. H. Smith, “Construction of constant GC-content DNA codes via a variable neighbourhood search algorithm,” Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 311–326, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. C. Tulpan, H. H. Hoos, and A. E. Condon, “Stochastic local search algorithms for DNA word design,” in DNA Computing, vol. 2568 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 229–241, 2003. View at Scopus
  19. P. Gaborit and O. D. King, “Linear constructions for DNA codes,” Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 334, no. 1–3, pp. 99–113, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. O. D. King, “Bounds for DNA codes with constant GC-content,” Electronic Journal of Combinatorics, vol. 10, article 13, 2003. View at Scopus
  21. A. Marathe, A. E. Condon, and R. M. Corn, “On combinatorial DNA word design,” Journal of Computational Biology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 201–219, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Leier, C. Richter, W. Banzhaf, and H. Rauhe, “Cryptography with DNA binary strands,” BioSystems, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 13–22, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Hirabayashi, H. Kojima, and K. Oiwa, “Design of true random one-time pads in DNA XOR cryptosystem,” Natural Computing, vol. 2, pp. 174–183, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. A. Gehani, T. Labean, and J. Reif, “DNA-based cryptography,” in Proceedings of the 5th DIMACS Workshop on DNA Based Computers, MIT, American Mathematical Society, 1999.
  25. M. Arita and Y. Ohashi, “Secret signatures inside genomic DNA,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1605–1607, 2004. View at Scopus
  26. D. C. Tulpan and H. H. Hoos, “Hybrid randomised neighbourhoods improve stochastic local search for DNA code design,” in Advances in Artificial Intelligence, vol. 2671 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 418–433, 2003. View at Scopus
  27. P. C. Wong, K. Wong, and H. Foote, “Organic data memory using the DNA approach,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 95–98, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. K. Saiki, D. H. Gelfand, S. Stoffel et al., “Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase,” Science, vol. 239, no. 4839, pp. 487–491, 1988. View at Scopus
  29. D. Heider and A. Barnekow, “DNA-based watermarks using the DNA-Crypt algorithm,” BMC Bioinformatics, vol. 8, article 176, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, Prentice Hall, New York, NY, USA, 4th edition, 2002.
  31. B. Schneier, “Description of a new variable-length key, 64-bit block cipher(blowfish),” in Fast Software Encryption, Cambridge Security Workshop, pp. 191–204, Springer, London, UK, 1994.
  32. H. J. Shiu, K. L. Ng, J. F. Fang, R. C. T. Lee, and C. H. Huang, “Data hiding methods based upon DNA sequences,” Information Sciences, vol. 180, no. 11, pp. 2196–2208, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. R. N. Torkaman, N. S. Kazazi, and A. Rouddini, “Innovative approach to improve hybrid cryptography by using DNA steganography,” International Journal on New Computer Architectures and Their Applications, vol. 202, pp. 225–236, 2012.
  34. M. Friedman, “The use of ranks to avoid the assumption of normality implicit in the analysis of variance,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol. 32, pp. 675–701, 1937.
  35. F. W. Kasinsiki, Die Geheimschriften und die Dechiffrir-Kunst, E.S. Mittler und Sohn, Berlin, Germany, 1863.
  36. J. Stirling, Methodus differentialis, sive tractatus de summation et interpolation serierum infinitarium, 1730.
  37. G. B. Belasso, La cifra del sig. giovan battista bellaso, gentil huomo bresciano, nuovamente da lui medesimo ridotta à grandissima brevità et perfettione, 1553.
  38. B. D. Vigenère, Traicté des chiffres, ou Secrètes manières d'escrire, Abel L’Angelier, Paris, France, 1st edition, 1587.
  39. G. T. Bogdanova, A. E. Brouwer, S. N. Kapralov, and P. R. J. Östergård, “Error-correcting codes over an alphabet of four elements,” Designs, Codes, and Cryptography, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 333–342, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Brouwer, “Table of general quaternary codes,” 2001, http://www.win.tue.nl/~aeb/codes/quaternary-1.html.