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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 638043, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/638043
Research Article

Platelet-Rich Fibrin Promotes Periodontal Regeneration and Enhances Alveolar Bone Augmentation

1UIC Brodie Laboratory for Craniofacial Genetics, 801 South Paulina, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
2Department of Implantology, Stomatological Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, China
3Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China
4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, UIC College of Dentistry, Chicago, IL, USA
5The First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin, China

Received 12 November 2012; Revised 2 January 2013; Accepted 4 January 2013

Academic Editor: Brian L. Foster

Copyright © 2013 Qi Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In the present study we have determined the suitability of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as a complex scaffold for periodontal tissue regeneration. Replacing PRF with its major component fibrin increased mineralization in alveolar bone progenitors when compared to periodontal progenitors, suggesting that fibrin played a substantial role in PRF-induced osteogenic lineage differentiation. Moreover, there was a 3.6-fold increase in the early osteoblast transcription factor RUNX2 and a 3.1-fold reduction of the mineralization inhibitor MGP as a result of PRF application in alveolar bone progenitors, a trend not observed in periodontal progenitors. Subcutaneous implantation studies revealed that PRF readily integrated with surrounding tissues and was partially replaced with collagen fibers 2 weeks after implantation. Finally, clinical pilot studies in human patients documented an approximately 5 mm elevation of alveolar bone height in tandem with oral mucosal wound healing. Together, these studies suggest that PRF enhances osteogenic lineage differentiation of alveolar bone progenitors more than of periodontal progenitors by augmenting osteoblast differentiation, RUNX2 expression, and mineralized nodule formation via its principal component fibrin. They also document that PRF functions as a complex regenerative scaffold promoting both tissue-specific alveolar bone augmentation and surrounding periodontal soft tissue regeneration via progenitor-specific mechanisms.