Figure 1: Crystal violet assay for the determination of HOS cell attachment and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for the assessment of surface roughness. (a) Using a crystal violet cell attachment assay, the anodized surface showed the highest cell attachment (as indicated by the highest absorbance), with no significant differences among the other surfaces. (b–e) The morphologies of the commercially pure (c.p.) titanium (Ti) (b), sandblasted with large grit and acid-etched (SLA) Ti (c), anodized Ti (d), and calcium phosphorous- (Ca-P-) coated Ti (e) surfaces are shown. Three-dimensional (3D) roughness parameters were measured from the CLSM images. is defined as the arithmetic average of the 3D roughness, representing the average height deviations of a given surface area. Sdr is defined as a developed area ratio, representing the extent of surface enlargement if a given surface is flattened. Red lines are the cross-sectional lines where 2D roughness parameters were measured. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (n = 3). Ti only: c.p. Ti.