Figure 2: Cell attachment and FESEM images for commercially pure (c.p.) titanium (Ti) or anodized Ti. The dark grey area represents the attached HOS cells (black arrows). Although spreading of the attached cells was not measured in this study, cell spreading on the c.p. Ti or anodized Ticoated surfaces was similar, irrespective of the base surface. Ti, Ti + SP, and Ti + Ln2P3 on the graphs mean the uncoated, SPcoated, and Ln2P3coated c.p. Ti surfaces, respectively. Also, Ano, Ano + SP, and Ano + Ln2P3 mean the uncoated, SPcoated, and Ln2P3coated anodized Ti surfaces. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (n = 4). (a) The counted number of the attached cells after 1 h of culture was 307 ± 17, 421 ± 7, and 506 ± 10 for the Ti, Ti + SP, and Ti + Ln2P3 groups, respectively. The number for the anodized Ti surfaces was 602 ± 28 (Ano), 711 ± 32 (Ano + SP), and 560 ± 33 (Ano + Ln2P3). (b) The counted number of the attached cells after 24 h of culture was 243 ± 7, 362 ± 22, and 431 ± 35 for the Ti, Ti + SP, and Ti + Ln2P3 groups, respectively. The number for the anodized Ti surfaces was 419 ± 25 (Ano), 469 ± 22 (Ano + SP), and 540 ± 25 (Ano + Ln2P3). 
