Table 1: Spectrum of translational bioinformatics activities.

SubfieldsResearch purposeData typesInformatics tools

BioinformaticsSequencing
Structure analysis
Expression analysis
Phylogenetic analysis
Structure modeling
Sequence information
Microarray
Mass spectrum
SNP
Haplotypes
Pattern recognition [4547]
Data mining [4850]
Machine learning [47, 51, 52]
Visualization [5355]
Automatic annotation [49, 5558]

Imaging informaticsImage feature identification
Image segmentation
Image reconstruction
Image annotation
Image indexing
Image visualization
DICOM
JPEG
TIFF
PNG
GIF
BMP
Content-based image retrieval [59, 60]
Natural language processing [61, 62]

Clinical informaticsClinical decision support
Clinical information access
Electronic patient record system
Disease reclassification
Clinical laboratory results
Physical examination
Symptoms and signs
Patient history
Prescriptions
Probabilistic decision-making [63]
Expert reasoning system [6466]
Assessment and validation vocabularies [67, 68]
Text-parsing tools [69]

Public health informaticsTracking of infectious diseases
Assessment clinical interventions
Monitoring disease risk factors
PHCDM-based health informationAccess control [70, 71]
Information security technology [37, 72]
Semantic and syntactic standards [73]
Structured data-collection techniques [74, 75]