Table 3: Determination of alquilphenols in biological and environmental samples.

AnalytesSamplesExtractionDeterminationAnalytical parametersReference

Octyl, nonylphenol ethoxylates, and carboxylatesWastewaterSPE, LLELC-MS2Recovery: 21–71%
LODs: 2–29 ng·L−1
[122]
APs, APEOs, APECsSurface, wastewaterSPELC-MS2Recovery: 50–90%
LODs: 1–100 ng·L−1
[123]
OP, NP, and BPABottled waterUHPLC-MS2Recovery: 97–106%
LODs: 0.04–0.057 µg·L−1
[124]
4-t-Octylphenol, 4-nonylphenols, and bisphenol A Fish liverASELC-MSRecovery: 53%
LODs: 5–20 ng·g−1
[125]
Bisphenol A Bovine milkSPELC-MSRecovery: 71–97%
LOD: 0.20 μg·L−1
[126]
Bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, bisphenol F-diglycidyl ether, and their derivatives Canned food and beveragesSPELC-MS2Recovery: 60–95%
MQLs: 0.13–0.6 μg·L−1  
MQLs: 1–4 μg·kg−1
[127]
Nonionic surfactantsWastewaterLC-QTOF-MSMDLs: 10–200 µg·L−1[128]
APs, AP1-15EOsAmended soilPLELC-MSRecovery: 36–110%
LODs: 0.3–30 ng·g−1
[129]
4-Tert-octylphenol, 4-octylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol ASea waterDLLMELC-MS2Recovery: 90–108%
MQLs: 0.005–0.03 μg·L−1
[130]

LC: liquid chromatography; UHPLC: Ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography; TOF: time-of-flight; MS: mass spectrometry.
SPE: solid-phase extraction; LLE: liquid-liquid extraction; PLE: pressurised liquid extraction; ASE: accelerated solvent extraction; DLLME: dispersive liquid-liquid extraction.
MQL: method quantification limit; LOQ: limit of quantification; LOD: limit of detection; IDL: instrument detection limit.
BPA: bisphenol A; NP: nonylphenol; OP: octylphenol; APs: alkylphenols; APEOs: alkylphenol polyethoxylates; OPEOs: octylphenol ethoxylates
PE1C: nonylphenoxy carboxylate; NPE2C: nonylphenoxy ethoxy carboxylate.