Table 4: Determination of flame retardants in biological and environmental samples.

AnalytesSamplesExtractionDeterminationAnalytical parametersReference

38 HFRs WastewaterPreconditioned empire speed diskLC–MS2Recoveries: 25–132%
LOQs: 0.1–5.6 μg·L−1
[131]
TBBPA and five PBDEs Wastewater, river, and drinkingwaterLLELC-LIT Recoveries: 43–99%
LOQs: 0.2–3.3 ng·L−1
[132]
HBCD isomersSuspended sediments from detroit riverASELC-MS2[133]
HBCD diastereoisomersMarine sedimentMAELC-ITRecoveries: 68–91%
LOQs: 25–40 pg·g−1
[134]
TBBPA and brominated BPA analoguesSediment and sludgeSoxhletLC-MS2Recoveries: 70–105%
LOQs: 0.02–0.15 ng·g−1
[135]
TBBPA, BPA, MonoBBPA, DiBBPA, and TriBBPA Sewage sludge and sedimentSonication SPELC-MS-LITRecoveries: 39–120%
LODs: 0.6–2.7 ng·g−1
[136]
HBCDs and TBBPA Sewage sludgePLEUHPLC-MS2Recoveries: 65–112%
LOQs: 0.005–0.14 ng·g−1
[137]
HBCDs (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD)Food MSPDLC-MS2LODs: 1.5–4.3 ng·mL−1[138]
36 halogenated flame retardantsFishPLELC-MS2IDLs: 4.7 pg[139]

LC: liquid chromatography; UHPLC: ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography; MS: mass spectrometry; IT: ion trap; LIT: lineal ion trap.
SPE: solid-phase extraction; ASE: assisted solvent extraction; LLE: liquid-liquid extraction; PLE: pressurised liquid extraction; MAE: microwave-assisted extraction; MSPD: matrix solid-phase dispersion.
LOQ: limit of quantification; LOD: limit of detection; IDL: instrument detection limit.
HFRs: halogenated flame retardants; BPA: bisphenol A; TBBPA: tetrabromobisphenol A; PBDEs: polybrominated dipheny lethers; HBCD: hexabromocyclododecanes.