About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 678476, 7 pages
Research Article

Novel Spectrophotometric Method for the Quantitation of Urinary Xanthurenic Acid and Its Application in Identifying Individuals with Hyperhomocysteinemia Associated with Vitamin Deficiency

1Clinical Laboratories, Yuan's General Hospital, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan
2Translational Research Laboratory, Cancer Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan
3Clinical Laboratories, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kwei-Shan 333, Taiwan
4Department of Food Science, National Penghu University of Science and Technology, Magong, Penghu 880, Taiwan
5Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
6Cancer Center and Department of Radiation Oncology, Taipei Medical University and Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan
7Division of Clinical Biochemistry, Graduate Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan

Received 20 June 2013; Accepted 16 August 2013

Academic Editor: Natasa Tosic

Copyright © 2013 Chi-Fen Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. D. Finkelstein, “Methionine metabolism in mammals,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 228–237, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. C. Lu and J. M. Mato, “S-adenosylmethionine in cell growth, apoptosis and liver cancer,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 23, supplement 1, pp. S73–S77, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. O. Midttun, S. Hustad, and P. M. Ueland, “Quantitative profiling of biomarkers related to B-vitamin status, tryptophan metabolism and inflammation in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry,” Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 1371–1379, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. Y. K. Park and H. Linkswiler, “Effect of vitamin B6 depletion in adult man on the excretion of cystathionine and other methionine metabolites,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 110–116, 1970. View at Scopus
  5. M. Slavik, K. J. Smith, and O. Blanc, “Decrease of serum pyridoxal phosphate levels and homocystinemia after administration of 6-azauridine triacetate and their prevention by administration of pyridoxine,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 4089–4092, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. A. Smolin and N. J. Benevenga, “Accumulation of homocyst(e)ine in vitamin B-6 deficiency: a model for the study of cystathionine β-synthase deficiency,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 112, no. 7, pp. 1264–1272, 1982. View at Scopus
  7. L. A. Smolin, T. D. Crenshaw, D. Kurtycz, and N. J. Benevenga, “Homocyst(e)ine accumulation in pigs fed diets deficient in vitamin B-6: relationship to atherosclerosis,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 113, no. 10, pp. 2022–2033, 1983. View at Scopus
  8. F. Takeuchi, R. Tsubouchi, S. Izuta, and Y. Shibata, “Kynurenic metabolism and xanthurenic acid formation in vitamin B6-deficient rat after tryptophan injection,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 111–122, 1989. View at Scopus
  9. S. J. Chang, “Vitamin B6 antagonists alter the function and ultrastructure of mice endothelial cells,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 149–153, 2000. View at Scopus
  10. J. B. Ubbink, W. J. H. Vermaak, A. van der Merwe, and P. J. Becker, “Vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6, and folate nutritional status in men with hyperhomocysteinemia,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 47–53, 1993. View at Scopus
  11. E. P. I. Chiang, J. Selhub, P. J. Bagley, G. Dallal, and R. Roubenoff, “Pyridoxine supplementation corrects vitamin B6 deficiency but does not improve inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Arthritis Research & Therapy, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. R1404–R1411, 2005. View at Scopus
  12. S. M. Zhang, W. C. Willett, J. Selhub et al., “Plasma folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and risk of breast cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 373–380, 2003. View at Scopus
  13. D. A. Bender, E. N. M. Njagi, and P. S. Danielian, “Tryptophan metabolism in vitamin B6-deficient mice,” The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 27–36, 1990. View at Scopus
  14. J. E. Leklem, “Vitamin B-6: a status report,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 120, no. 11, pp. 1503–1507, 1990. View at Scopus
  15. R. C. Shaw and R. D. Feigin, “Excretion of kynurenic acid and xanthurenic acid during infection,” Pediatrics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 47–56, 1971. View at Scopus
  16. J. B. Ubbink, R. Delport, P. J. Becker, and S. Bissbort, “Evidence of a theophylline-induced vitamin B6 deficiency caused by noncompetitive inhibition of pyridoxal kinase,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 1989. View at Scopus
  17. S. Ikeda and Y. Kotake, “Urinary excretion of xanthurenic acid and zinc in diabetes: (3). Occurrence of xanthurenic acid-Zn2+ complex in urine of diabetic patients and of experimentally-diabetic rats,” Italian Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 232–241, 1986. View at Scopus
  18. J. V. Woodside, D. G. Fogarty, J. H. Lightbody et al., “Homocysteine and B-group vitamins in renal transplant patients,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 282, no. 1-2, pp. 157–166, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. P. I. Chiang, P. J. Bagley, R. Roubenoff, M. Nadeau, and J. Selhub, “Plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate concentration is correlated with functional vitamin B-6 indices in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and marginal vitamin B-6 status,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 133, no. 4, pp. 1056–1059, 2003. View at Scopus
  20. C. C. Lin and M. C. Yin, “B vitamins deficiency and decreased anti-oxidative state in patients with liver cancer,” European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 293–299, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. Schernhammer, B. Wolpin, N. Rifai et al., “Plasma folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and homocysteine and pancreatic cancer risk in four large cohorts,” Cancer Research, vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 5553–5560, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. Ma, M. Iwasaki, I. Junko et al., “Dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, genetic polymorphism of related enzymes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Brazilian women,” BMC Cancer, vol. 9, article 122, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. Satoh and J. M. Price, “Fluorometric determination of kynurenic acid and xanthurenic acid in human urine,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 230, no. 2, pp. 781–789, 1958. View at Scopus
  24. G. Cohen, R. A. Fishman, and A. L. Jenkins, “A fluorometric method for the determination of xanthurenic acid in urine,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 520–527, 1966. View at Scopus
  25. M. J. Wallace, H. W. Vaillant, and H. A. Salhanick, “Method for quantitative measurement of xanthurenic acid in urine,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 505–511, 1971. View at Scopus
  26. S. A. Williams, J. A. Monti, L. R. Boots, and P. E. Cornwell, “Quantitation of xanthurenic acid in rabbit serum using high performance liquid chromatography,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 159–167, 1984. View at Scopus
  27. J. B. Ubbink, A. M. Schnell, and C. H. Rapley, “Quantification of urinary xanthurenic acid excretion by anion-exchange solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography, vol. 425, no. 1, pp. 182–186, 1988. View at Scopus
  28. E. Ohtsuki, M. Suzuki, M. Takayanagi, and T. Yashiro, “Colorimetric determination of urinary xanthurenic acid using an oxidative coupling reaction with N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 139–141, 1994. View at Scopus
  29. M. Liu, G. R. Wang, T. Z. Liu, and K. J. Tsai, “Improved fluorometric quantification of urinary xanthurenic acid,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 397–401, 1996. View at Scopus
  30. M. Rothstein and D. M. Greenberg, “Studies on the metabolism of xanthurenic acid-4-C14,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 206–214, 1957. View at Scopus
  31. J. W. Wilson, C. W. Enns, J. D. Goldman et al., “Data table: combined results from USDA's 1994 and 1995 continuing survey of food intakes by individuels and 1994 and 1995 diet and health knowledge survey,” USDA/ARS Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Riverdale, Md, USA, 1997.
  32. B. N. Ames, “Micronutrient deficiencies cause DNA damage and cancer,” Food Science and Agricultural Chemistry, vol. 1, pp. 1–15, 1999.
  33. S. P. Stabler, D. A. Sampson, L. P. Wang, and R. H. Allen, “Elevations of serum cystathionine and total homocysteine in pyridoxine- , folate-, and cobalamin-deficient rats,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 279–289, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. J. Key, P. B. Silcocks, G. K. Davey, P. N. Appleby, and D. T. Bishop, “A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer,” The British Journal of Cancer, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 678–687, 1997. View at Scopus