Table 3: Dengue activity in the state of Hawaii and the Territories of American Samoa, Guam, and Northern Mariana Islands, 1840s–2010.

Year(s)Activity reportedReferences

Late 1840sFirst large dengue epidemic recorded in HI, associated with Aedes aegypti [34]
1903Large dengue epidemic in HI, 30,000 cases, associated with Aedes aegypti [35]
1943-1944DENV-1 epidemic in HI, 1,500 cases[34, 36]
1944Aedes aegypti reported to be eradicated from GU. Aedes albopictus reported to be present in the island[37]
<1950Dengue cases were reported in AS and GU before 1950, no dengue epidemics reported in GU in recent times[38]
1995Possible dengue infection in German visitors to HI[39]
1972Dengue epidemic in AS (DENV-2)[40]
1975Dengue epidemic in AS (DENV-1)[38, 40]
1995-1996Dengue epidemic in AS (DENV-3)[38]
1997Reports of dengue cases in AS[41]
1998Dengue seropositive individuals reported in Saipan (MP) during 1998, DENV-2 implicated in epidemic activity [42, 43]
2001More than 1,600 dengue cases reported in AS (DENV-1), 3 deaths[44]
Dengue outbreak in the MP, >1,400 cases reported[45]
2001-2002Autochthonous transmission of dengue in HI, 122 confirmed cases, DENV-1 isolated, and Aedes albopictus was the implicated vector [46]
200763 dengue cases confirmed in AS, 23 cases hospitalized[47]
2008Dengue activity reported in AS[48]
2009Outbreak of 400 confirmed cases in AS[48]
2010Dengue cases reported in AS. Serosurvey conducted in 2010 revealed >95% of the tested individuals as seropositive for dengue[8, 48]

AS: American Samoa, GU: Guam, HI: Hawaii, and MP: Northern Mariana Islands.