Table 1: Origin of diesel particles used in the different studies, test systems, concentrations and effects on different end-points. The arrows give a rough indication of the magnitude of effects judged from the results presented (small: ↑; moderate: ↑↑; strong ↑↑↑).

Diesel typeTest systemConcentrationsEndpointsCitation

Heavy duty machine
NIST 1650
Cell-freeNot relevantROS (malondialdehyde) ↑↑Ball et al. [16]
Heavy duty machine
NIST 1650
Bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cell line),
Primary human nasal epithelial cells
10–30  g/cm2ROS-formation (DCF-fluoroscence) ↑↑, CYPIAI mRNA and EROD-activity ↑↑; NADPH quinone oxidodreductase-1 mRNA ↑↑; translocation of transcription factor Nrf2 ↑↑
Baulig et al., [17, 18]
Heavy duty machine NIST 165016-HBE (bronchial epithelial cells)
10  g/cm2GM-CSF ↑↑, NFκ-B activity ↑↑,
CYP1A1 mRNA ↑↑, Phosphorylation of MAPK Erk and p38 ↑↑
Bonvallot et al., [19]
Heavy duty machine NIST 1650THP-1 monocyte and A549 epithelial cell co-culture10–40  g/cm2IL-6 ↑; IL-8 ↑; TNFαKocbach et al., [20]
Heavy duty machine
NIST 1650
A549 epithelial cells0.1 to 20 ppmIL-8 ↑; CRP ↑Patel et al., [21]
Heavy duty machine
NIST 1650
RAW monocyte/macrophages
5–20  g/mLNO-production ↑↑Saxena et al., [22]
Heavy duty machine
NIST 1650
BEAS-2B, (bronchial epithelial cells)~4–60  g/cm2Increased cytotoxicityTotlandsdal et al., [23]
Forklift
NIST 2975
Cell-free, Not relevantROS (malondialdehyde) ↑Ball et al. [16]
Forklift
NIST 2975
Primary human epithelial cells50  g/mLPhosphorylation of Stat3, EGF-receptor ↑↑Cao et al., [24]
Forklift
NIST 2975
BEAS-2B Bronchial epithelial cells10  g/cm2STAT3; src; EGFR necessary for p21 ↑↑; inhibition of proliferationCao et al., [25]
Forklift
NIST 2975
BEAS-2B Bronchial epithelial cells + primary monocytes50  g/mLIL-1Chaudhuri et al., [26]
Forklift
NIST 2975
HEK-293 epidermal cells, primary mouse neurons77–770  g/mLTRPA-1 activation ↑Deering-Rice et al., [27]
Forklift
NIST 2975
16-HBE, monocytes, dendritic cells, triple co-culture 125  g/mL (cells on insert)Reduction and altered distribution of occluding, minor effect in epithelial cells, stronger in other cell typesLehmann et al., [28]
Forklift
NIST 2975
A549 and NCI-H292 cells5–10  g/cm2MMP-1Amara et al., [29]

Forklift
NIST 2975
Primary murine tracheal cells 25  g/cm2Small effects on LDH, HO-1
Alveolar lung cell line GSH/GSSG ratio
Manzo et al., [30]
Forklift
NIST 2975
Primary human macrophages
Suspension culture,
100  g/mLNo significant increase in TNF or IL-8; DEP reduced cytokine release induced by LPSSawyer et al., [31]
Forklift
NIST 2975
BEAS-2B (bronchial epithelial cells)Only extracts testedIL.6 ↑; IL-8 ↑Swanson et al., [32]
Forklift
NIST 2975
BEAS-2B cells (bronchial epithelial cells), HAEC cells10  g/cm2IL-8 mRNA ↑↑,
N-DEP effect NF B dependent
Tal et al., [33]
NIST, not specifiedA549 epithelial cells and primary rat airway epithelial cells20  g/cm2Transepithelial conductance ↑
Occluding
Caraballo et al., [34]
C-DEP, EPA diesel (2005)Primary human epithelial cells50  g/mLPhosphorylation of Stat3 ↑↑↑Cao et al., [24]
A-DEP, diesel from Sagai et al., [35]BEAS-2B (bronchial epithelial cells) 10  g/cm2IL-8 mRNA ↑↑↑
Tal et al., [33]
A-DEP, diesel from Sagai et al., [35]BEAS-2B (bronchial epithelial cells)5–50  g/mLHSP70 ↑↑ at 10  g/mLJung et al., [36]
2.7 L Isuzu diesel; A-DEP diesel from Sagai et al., [35]BEAS-2B (bronchial epithelial cells) and primary peripheral airway cells 5 and 25  g/mL IL-8 ↑↑Kawasaki et al., [37]
2.7 L Isuzu diesel; A-DEP before year 2000BEAS-2B (bronchial epithelial cells)5–100  g/mLIL-8 ↑↑,
GM-CSF ↑↑,
Depending on NF B, reduced by NAC
Takizawa et al., [38, 39]
2.7 L Isuzu diesel; A-DEP before year 2000BEAS-2B (bronchial epithelial cells)5–100  g/mLIL-8 ↑↑, RANTES ↑↑; dependent on p38, reduced by NACHashimoto et al., [40]
Deutz unloaded 2.2 L; EURO 4 (2009)BEAS-2B (bronchial epithelial cells)~4–60  g/cm2IL-6 ↑↑; IL-8 ↑↑;
CYP1A1 ↑↑↑ (at 0.004  g/cm2); COX-2 ↑↑↑; p38 ↑ and NF B ↑
Totlandsdal et al., [23]
DEPA (from EPA)Primary murine tracheal cells 5–200  g/cm2LDH ↑ at 100 μg/cm2
Alveolar lung cell line HO-1 ↑↑
Manzo et al., [30]
1.6 L Volkswagen diesel; from EPA (1992)Primary human bronchial epithelial cells; human primary monocytes differentiated to dendritic cells; 3  g/cm2Epithelial cells TSLP ↑↑
Dendritic cells
OX40L ↑↑;
Bleck et al., [41]
Heavy duty 9.2 L; DEP freshly generatedA549 epithelial cells, Air-liquid interface exposureLow 0.1 mg/m3  
High 0.8 mg/m3
IL-1β only at one conc of high NO2, reduced viabilityTsukue et al., [42]
2.2 L Honda EURO 4 machine DEP + rape seed biodiesel (±DPF)BEAS-2B (bronchial epithelial cells)~6 to 200  g/mLIL-6
Most effect in g/mL
B50 DPF B0DPF > B50 > B0
Gerlofs-Nijland et al., submitted
2.2 L Honda EURO 4 machine, Golf. Corolla cars DPF, diesel biodieselCell-freeNot relevantCorrelation of DTT consumption with EC/Water insoluble OC/OCKa et al., [43]
US 2004 machine (black smoker)HEK-293 epidermal cells, primary mouse neurons77–770  g/mLTRPA-1 activation ↑↑Deering-Rice et al., [27]
Soy bean biodiesel 2005BEAS-2B (bronchial epithelial cells)Only extracts testedStronger effects of biodiesel (soy bean)Swanson et al., [32]