Table 1: Current recommendations edited by international scientific organizations for the use of serum cancer biomarkers in clinical oncology.

Expert panelRecommendationYear of publicationReference

ASCOThe use of CA15-3 and CEA is not recommended for routine surveillance of patients with breast cancer after primary therapy 2013[52]

ESMOSerum tumor markers (such as CA15-3 and/or CEA), if initially elevated, may be helpful in monitoring response, particularly in the case of nonmeasurable disease. However, a change in tumor markers alone should not be used as the only determinant for treatment decisions 2012[53]

ACRLocalizing “occult” disease especially in the presence of clinical indicators such as elevated tumor markers2012[54]

EANMEstablishing and localizing disease sites as a cause for elevated serum markers (e.g., colorectal, thyroid, ovarian, cervix, melanoma, breast, and germ-cell tumours) 2010[55]

NACBCEA and CA15-3 are useful for therapy monitoring especially in patients with nonevaluable disease 2008[56]

EGTMCA15-3 and CEA are the most useful serum markers in patients with breast cancer. Serial determinations of these markers are useful in assessing prognosis, early detection of relapse (metastasis), and therapy monitoring 2005[57]