About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 687575, 22 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/687575
Review Article

The Role of Neuropeptides in Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review

1Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Organs, Suicide Prevention Center, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, 1035-1039 Via di Grottarossa, 00189 Rome, Italy
2Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Psychiatry, Lund University, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden
3Psychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA

Received 27 April 2013; Revised 1 July 2013; Accepted 3 July 2013

Academic Editor: Rajnish Chaturvedi

Copyright © 2013 Gianluca Serafini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. K. Goldsmith, T. C. Pellmar, A. M. Kleinman, and W. E. Bunney, Reducing Suicide, Institute of Medicine of the US National Academies of Science, Washington, DC, USA, 2002.
  2. R. I. Simon and R. E. Hales, Textbook of Suicide Assessment and Management, American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2006.
  3. World Health Organization (WHO), “International suicide rates,” http://www.who.int/mental_health/prevention/suicide/country_reports/en/index.html.
  4. L. Tondo, G. Isacsson, and R. J. Baldessarini, “Suicidal behaviour in bipolar disorder: risk and prevention,” CNS Drugs, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 491–511, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. C. Kessler, P. Berglund, G. Borges, M. Nock, and P. S. Wang, “Trends in suicide ideation, plans, gestures, and attempts in the United States, 1990-1992 to 2001-2003,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 293, no. 20, pp. 2487–2495, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Roy, “Suicide,” in Kaplan and Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychaitry, B. J. Sadock and V. A. Sadock, Eds., vol. 2, pp. 2031–2040, Lippincott Willians and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 7th edition, 2000.
  7. M. Pompili, M. Innamorati, Z. Rihmer et al., “Cyclothymic-depressive-anxious temperament pattern is related to suicide risk in 346 patients with major mood disorders,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 405–411, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Pompili, Z. Rihmer, H. Akiskal et al., “Temperaments mediate suicide risk and psychopathology among patients with bipolar disorders,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 280–285, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Pompili, G. Serafini, M. Innamorati et al., “Suicide risk in first episode psychosis: a selective review of the current literature,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 129, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. G. Serafini, M. Pompili, M. Innamorati et al., “Affective temperamental profiles are associated with white matter hyperintensity and suicidal risk in patients with mood disorders,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 129, no. 1-3, pp. 47–55, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. G. Serafini, M. Pompili, M. Innamorati et al., “The role of microRNAs in synaptic plasticity, major affective disorders and suicidal behavior,” Neuroscience Research, vol. 73, pp. 179–190, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Innamorati, M. Pompili, X. Gonda et al., “Psychometric properties of the Gotland Scale for Depression in Italian psychiatric inpatients and its utility in the prediction of suicide risk,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 132, no. 1-2, pp. 99–103, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. W. Maris, “Suicide,” The Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9329, pp. 319–326, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. K. Hawton and K. van Heeringen, “Suicide,” The Lancet, vol. 373, no. 9672, pp. 1372–1381, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. Baca-Garcia, C. Diaz-Sastre, E. García Resa et al., “Suicide attempts and impulsivity,” European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 255, no. 2, pp. 152–156, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Y. Gvion and A. Apte, “Aggression, impulsivity, and suicide behavior: a review of the literature,” Archives of Suicide Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 93–112, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Corruble, A. Benyamina, F. Bayle, B. Falissard, and P. Hardy, “Understanding impulsivity in severe depression? A psychometrical contribution,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 829–833, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. Plutchik and H. M. Van Praag, “The measurement of suicidality, aggressivity and impulsivity,” Clinical Neuropharmacology, vol. 9, supplement 4, pp. S380–S382, 1986.
  19. A. T. Beck, I. Herman, and D. Schuyler, “Development of suicidal intent scales,” in The Prediction of Suicide, A. T. Beck, H. L. P. Resnick, and D. Lettieri, Eds., pp. 45–46, Charles Press, 1974.
  20. P. McGonigle, “Peptide therapeutics for CNS indications,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 559–566, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. E. Keck, F. Ohl, F. Holsboer, and M. B. Müller, “Listening to mutant mice: a spotlight on the role of CRF/CRF receptor systems in affective disorders,” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 29, no. 4-5, pp. 867–889, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Panksepp, “The neurochemistry of behavior,” Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 37, pp. 77–107, 1986. View at Scopus
  23. B. Alldredge, “Pathogenic involvement of neuropeptides in anxiety and depression,” Neuropeptides, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 215–224, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Ludwig, “Are neuropeptides brain hormones?” Journal of Neuroendocrinology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 381–382, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Hökfelt, C. Broberger, Z.-Q. D. Xu, V. Sergeyev, R. Ubink, and M. Diez, “Neuropeptides—an overview,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1337–1356, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Harro, “CCK and NPY as anti-anxiety treatment targets: promises, pitfalls, and strategies,” Amino Acids, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 215–230, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. J. Valentino and K. G. Commons, “Peptides that fine-tune the serotonin system,” Neuropeptides, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. W. Gold, G. Chrousos, C. Kellner, et al., “Psychiatric implications of basic and clinical studies with corticotropin-releasing factor,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 141, no. 5, pp. 619–627, 1984. View at Scopus
  29. F. Holsboer, “The corticosteroid receptor hypothesis of depression,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 477–501, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. E. Keck, T. Welt, M. B. Müller et al., “Reduction of hypothalamic vasopressinergic hyperdrive contributes to clinically relevant behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of chronic paroxetine treatment in a psychopathological rat model,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 235–243, 2003. View at Scopus
  31. T. Sherrin, K. Y. C. Heng, Y. Z. Zhu, Y. M. Tang, G. Lau, and C. H. Tan, “Cholecystokinin-B receptor gene expression in cerebellum, pre-frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus and its association with suicide,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 357, no. 2, pp. 107–110, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Harro, J. Marcusson, and L. Oreland, “Alterations in brain cholecystokinin receptors in suicide victims,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 57–63, 1992. View at Scopus
  33. Å. Westrin, R. Ekman, and L. Träskman-Bendz, “Alterations of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) plasma levels in mood disorder patients with a recent suicide attempt,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 205–211, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. S. Widdowson, G. A. Ordway, and A. E. Halaris, “Reduced neuropeptide Y concentrations in suicide brain,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 73–80, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Heilig, “Neuropeptide Y in relation to behaviour and psychiatric disorders,” in Biology of Neuropeptide Y and Related Peptides, W. F. Colmers and C. Wahlestedt, Eds., pp. 511–554, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA, 1993.
  36. D. Moher, D. J. Cook, S. Eastwood, I. Olkin, D. Rennie, and D. F. Stroup, “Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials: the QUOROM statement. QUOROM Group,” The British Journal of Surgery, vol. 87, no. 11, pp. 1448–1454, 2000. View at Scopus
  37. S. C. Heinrichs and G. F. Koob, “Corticotropin-releasing factor in brain: a role in activation, arousal, and affect regulation,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 311, no. 2, pp. 427–440, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. B. Nemeroff and W. W. Vale, “The neurobiology of depression: inroads to treatment and new drug discovery,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 66, supplement 7, pp. 5–13, 2005. View at Scopus
  39. J. H. Kehne, “The CRF1 receptor, a novel target for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and stress-related disorders,” CNS & Neurological Disorders—Drug Targets, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 163–182, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. Pompili, G. Serafini, M. Innamorati et al., “The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and serotonin abnormalities: a selective overview for the implications of suicide prevention,” European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 260, no. 8, pp. 583–600, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. B. Nemeroff, G. Bissette, H. Akil, and M. Fink, “Neuropeptide concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid of depressed patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy. Corticotrophin-releasing factor, β-endorphin and somatostatin,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 158, pp. 59–63, 1991. View at Scopus
  42. S. C. Stout, M. J. Owens, and C. B. Nemeroff, “Regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor neuronal systems and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity by stress and chronic antidepressant treatment,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 300, no. 3, pp. 1085–1092, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. F. Holsboer, “The corticosteroid receptor hypothesis of depression,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 477–501, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. B. Nemeroff, E. Widerlov, and G. Bissette, “Elevated concentrations of CSF corticotropin-releasing factor-like immunoreactivity in depressed patients,” Science, vol. 226, no. 4680, pp. 1342–1344, 1984. View at Scopus
  45. G. Bissette, V. Klimek, J. Pan, C. Stockmeier, and G. Ordway, “Elevated concentrations of CRF in the locus coeruleus of depressed subjects,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1328–1335, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Z. Merali, L. Du, P. Hrdina et al., “Dysregulation in the suicide brain: mRNA expression of corticotropinreleasing hormone receptors and GABA(A) receptor subunits in frontal cortical brain region,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 1478–1485, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. B. Nemeroff, M. J. Owens, G. Bissette, A. C. Andorn, and M. Stanley, “Reduced corticotropin releasing factor binding sites in the frontral cortex of suicide victims,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 577–579, 1988. View at Scopus
  48. S. Makino, M. A. Smith, and P. W. Gold, “Increased expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus during repeated stress: association with reduction in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels,” Endocrinology, vol. 136, no. 8, pp. 3299–3309, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. L. Forster, R. B. Pringle, N. J. Mouw et al., “Corticotropin-releasing factor in the dorsal raphe nucleus increases medial prefrontal cortical serotonin via type 2 receptors and median raphe nucleus activity,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 299–310, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Z. Liu, F. Zhu, G. Wang et al., “Association of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor1 gene SNP and haplotype with major depression,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 404, no. 3, pp. 358–362, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Z. Liu, F. Zhu, G. Wang et al., “Association study of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor1 gene polymorphisms and antidepressant response in major depressive disorders,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 414, no. 2, pp. 155–158, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. E. Keck, N. Kern, A. Erhardt et al., “Combined effects of exonic polymorphisms in CRHR1 and AVPR1B genes in a case/control study for panic disorder,” American Journal of Medical Genetics B, vol. 147, no. 7, pp. 1196–1204, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. G. Bradley, E. B. Binder, M. P. Epstein et al., “Influence of child abuse on adult depression: moderation by the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 190–200, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. B. Binneman, D. Feltner, S. Kolluri, Y. Shi, R. Qiu, and T. Stiger, “A 6-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial of CP-316,311 (a selective CRH1 antagonist) in the treatment of major depression,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 165, no. 5, pp. 617–620, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. H. K. Caldwell, H.-J. Lee, A. H. Macbeth, and W. S. Young III, “Vasopressin: behavioral roles of an “original” neuropeptide,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 1–24, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. L. van Londen, J. G. Goekoop, G. M. J. van Kempen et al., “Plasma levels of arginine vasopressin elevated in patients with major depression,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 284–292, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. S. Purba, W. J. G. Hoogendijk, M. A. Hofman, and D. F. Swaab, “Increased number of vasopressin- and oxytocin-expressing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in depression,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 137–143, 1996. View at Scopus
  58. E. D. Schmidt, R. Binnekade, A. W. J. W. Janszen, and F. J. H. Tilders, “Short stressor induced long-lasting increases in vasopressin stores in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in adult rats,” Journal of Neuroendocrinology, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 703–712, 1996. View at Scopus
  59. S. Volpi, C. Rabadan-Diehl, and G. Aguilera, “Vasopressinergic regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and stress adaptation,” Stress, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 75–83, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. T. G. Dinan and L. V. Scott, “Anatomy of melancholia: focus on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis overactivity and the role of vasopressin,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 207, no. 3, pp. 259–264, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. E. L. Dempster, I. Burcescu, K. Wigg et al., “Evidence of an association between the vasopressin V1b receptor gene (AVPR1B) and childhood-onset mood disorders,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 10, pp. 1189–1195, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. N. Egashira, A. Tanoue, T. Matsuda et al., “Impaired social interaction and reduced anxiety-related behavior in vasopressin V1a receptor knockout mice,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 123–127, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. C. J. Bleickardt, D. E. Mullins, C. P. MacSweeney et al., “Characterization of the V1a antagonist, JNJ-17308616, in rodent models of anxiety-like behavior,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 202, no. 4, pp. 711–718, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. G. Aguilera, S. Subburaju, S. Young, and J. Chen, “The parvocellular vasopressinergic system and responsiveness of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis during chronic stress,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 170, pp. 29–39, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. N. G. Simon, C. Guillon, K. Fabio et al., “Vasopressin antagonists as anxiolytics and antidepressants: recent developments,” Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 77–93, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. C. A. Pedersen and M. L. Boccia, “Oxytocin antagonism alters rat dams' oral grooming and upright posturing over pups,” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 80, no. 2-3, pp. 233–241, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. Benelli, A. Bertolini, R. Poggioli, B. Menozzi, R. Basaglia, and R. Arletti, “Polymodal dose-response curve for oxytocin in the social recognition test,” Neuropeptides, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 251–255, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. U. Rimmele, K. Hediger, M. Heinrichs, and P. Klaver, “Oxytocin makes a face in memory familiar,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 38–42, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. Stachowiak, C. Macchi, G. G. Nussdorfer, and L. K. Malendowicz, “Effects of oxytocin on the function and morphology of the rat adrenal cortex: in vitro and in vivo investigations,” Research in Experimental Medicine, vol. 195, no. 5, pp. 265–274, 1995. View at Scopus
  70. J.-J. Legros, “Inhibitory effect of oxytocin on corticotrope function in humans: are vasopressin and oxytocin ying-yang neurohormones?” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 649–655, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. R. H. Ring, J. E. Malberg, L. Potestio et al., “Anxiolytic-like activity of oxytocin in male mice: behavioral and autonomic evidence, therapeutic implications,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 185, no. 2, pp. 218–225, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. R. H. Ring, L. E. Schechter, S. K. Leonard et al., “Receptor and behavioral pharmacology of WAY-267464, a non-peptide oxytocin receptor agonist,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 69–77, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. P. Kirsch, C. Esslinger, Q. Chen et al., “Oxytocin modulates neural circuitry for social cognition and fear in humans,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 25, no. 49, pp. 11489–11493, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. G. Scantamburlo, M. Hansenne, S. Fuchs et al., “Plasma oxytocin levels and anxiety in patients with major depression,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 407–410, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. K. Uvnas-Moberg, P. Alster, and T. H. Svensson, “Amperozide and clozapine but not haloperidol or raclopride increase the secretion of oxytocin in rats,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 109, no. 4, pp. 473–476, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. Jokinen, A. Chatzittofis, C. Hellström, P. Nordström, K. Uvnäs-Moberg, and M. Åsberg, “Low CSF oxytocin reflects high intent in suicide attempters,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 482–490, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. D. Feifel and T. Reza, “Oxytocin modulates psychotomimetic-induced deficits in sensorimotor gating,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. D. Feifel, K. MacDonald, A. Nguyen et al., “Adjunctive intranasal oxytocin reduces symptoms in schizophrenia patients,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 678–680, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. C. Modahl, L. Green, D. Fein et al., “Plasma oxytocin levels in autistic children,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 270–277, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. C. M. Yrigollen, S. S. Han, A. Kochetkova et al., “Genes controlling affiliative behavior as candidate genes for autism,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 911–916, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. E. Hollander, J. Bartz, W. Chaplin et al., “Oxytocin increases retention of social cognition in autism,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 498–503, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. E. Hollander, S. Novotny, M. Hanratty et al., “Oxytocin infusion reduces repetitive behaviors in adults with autistic and Asperger's disorders,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 193–198, 2003. View at Scopus
  83. D. Lindqvist, S. Janelidze, S. Erhardt, L. Träskman-Bendz, G. Engström, and L. Brundin, “CSF biomarkers in suicide attempters—a principal component analysis,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 52–61, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. B. Stanley, L. Sher, S. Wilson, R. Ekman, Y.-Y. Huang, and J. J. Mann, “Non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, endogenous opioids and monoamine neurotransmitters,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 124, no. 1-2, pp. 134–140, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. L. Brundin, M. Björkqvist, L. Träskman-Bendz, and A. Petersén, “Increased orexin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid the first year after a suicide attempt,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 113, pp. 179–182, 2009.
  86. W. Pitchot, G. Scantamburlo, E. Pinto et al., “Vasopressin-neurophysin and DST in major depression: relationship with suicidal behavior,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 684–688, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. L. Brundin, M. Björkqvist, Å. Petersén, and L. Träskman-Bendz, “Reduced orexin levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of suicidal patients with major depressive disorder,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 573–579, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. L. Brundin, A. Petersén, M. Bjِrkqvist, and L. Träskman-Bendz, “Orexin and psychiatric symptoms in suicide attempters,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 100, no. 1–3, pp. 259–263, 2007.
  89. M. C. Austin, J. E. Janosky, and H. A. Murphy, “Increased corticotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in monoamine-containing pontine nuclei of depressed suicide men,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 324–332, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. Z. Merali, P. Kent, L. Du et al., “Corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin, gastrin-releasing peptide, and neuromedin B alterations in stress-relevant brain regions of suicides and control subjects,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 594–602, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J. Brunner, M. E. Keck, R. Landgraf, M. Uhr, C. Namendorf, and T. Bronisch, “Vasopressin in CSF and plasma in depressed suicide attempters: preliminary results,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 489–494, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. L. Caberlotto and Y. L. Hurd, “Neuropeptide Y Y1 and Y2 receptor mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex of psychiatric subjects: relationship of Y2 subtype to suicidal behavior,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 91–97, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. W. J. Inder, R. A. Donald, T. C. R. Prickett et al., “Arginine vasopressin is associated with hypercortisolemia and suicide attempts in depression,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 744–747, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. A. Olsson, G. Regnéll, L. Träskman-Bendz, R. Ekman, and Å. Westrin, “Cerebrospinal neuropeptide Y and substance P in suicide attempters during long-term antidepressant treatment,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 479–485, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. A. Westrin, R. Ekman, G. Regnéll, and L. Träskman-Bendz, “A follow up study of suicide attempters: increase of CSF-somatostatin but no change in CSF-CRH,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 135–143, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. Å. Westrin, R. Ekman, and L. Träskman-Bendz, “High delta sleep-inducing peptide-like immunoreactivity in plasma in suicidal patients with major depressive disorder,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 734–739, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. Å. Westrin, G. Engstöm, R. Ekman, and L. Träskman-Bendz, “Correlations between plasma-neuropeptides and temperament dimensions differ between suicidal patients and healthy controls,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 45–54, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. A. Roy, “Neuropeptides in relation to suicidal behavior in depression,” Neuropsychobiology, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 184–186, 1993. View at Scopus
  99. G. A. Ordway, C. A. Stockmeier, H. Y. Meltzer, J. C. Overholser, S. Jaconetta, and P. S. Widdowson, “Neuropeptide Y in frontal cortex is not altered in major depression,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 1646–1650, 1995. View at Scopus
  100. L. Träskman-Bendz, R. Ekman, G. Regnéll, and R. Öhman, “HPA-related CSF neuropeptides in suicide attempters,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 99–106, 1992. View at Scopus
  101. S. Scarone, O. Gambini, G. Calabrese et al., “Asymmetrical distribution of beta-endorphin in cerebral hemispheres of suicides: preliminary data,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 159–166, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. Maes, M. Vandewoude, C. Schotte et al., “Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -thyroid axis dysfunctions and decrements in the availability of L-tryptophan as biological markers of suicidal ideation in major depressed females,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 13–17, 1989. View at Scopus
  103. E. Kuteeva, T. Hökfelt, T. Wardi, and S. O. Ogren, “Galanin, galanin receptor subtypes and depression-like behaviour,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 1854–1863, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. R.-M. Karlsson and A. Holmes, “Galanin as a modulator of anxiety and depression and a therapeutic target for affective disease,” Amino Acids, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 231–239, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. C. Tortorella, G. Neri, and G. G. Nussdorfer, “Galanin in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (review),” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 639–647, 2007. View at Scopus
  106. S. O. Ogren, E. Kuteeva, T. Hökfelt, and J. Kehr, “Galanin receptor antagonists: a potential novel pharmacological treatment for mood disorders,” CNS Drugs, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 633–654, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. J. M. Weiss, K. A. Boss-Williams, J. P. Moore, M. K. Demetrikopoulos, J. C. Ritchie, and C. H. K. West, “Testing the hypothesis that locus coeruleus hyperactivity produces depression-related changes via galanin,” Neuropeptides, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 281–287, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. S. O. Ogren, H. Razani, E. Elvander-Tottie, and J. Kehr, “The neuropeptide galanin as an in vivo modulator of brain 5-HT1A receptors: possible relevance for affective disorders,” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 92, no. 1-2, pp. 172–179, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. C. J. Swanson, T. P. Blackburn, X. Zhang et al., “Anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like profiles of the galanin-3 receptor (Gal3) antagonists SNAP 37889 and SNAP 398299,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 48, pp. 17489–17494, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. C. R. Elliott-Hunt, R. J. P. Pope, P. Vanderplank, and D. Wynick, “Activation of the galanin receptor 2 (GalR2) protects the hippocampus from neuronal damage,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 780–789, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. K. Ebner, P. Muigg, G. Singewald, and N. Singewald, “Substance P in stress and anxiety: NK-1 receptor antagonism interacts with key brain areas of the stress circuitry,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1144, pp. 61–73, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. P. Blier, G. Gobbi, N. Haddjeri, L. Santarelli, G. Mathew, and R. Hen, “Impact of substance P receptor antagonism on the serotonin and norepinephrine systems: relevance to the antidepressant/anxiolytic response,” Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 208–218, 2004. View at Scopus
  113. Q.-P. Ma and C. Bleasdale, “Modulation of brain stem monoamines and γ-aminobutyric acid by NKI receptors in rats,” NeuroReport, vol. 13, no. 14, pp. 1809–1812, 2002. View at Scopus
  114. K. Ebner and N. Singewald, “Stress-induced release of substance P in the locus coeruleus modulates cortical noradrenaline release,” Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, vol. 376, no. 1-2, pp. 73–82, 2007. View at Scopus
  115. K. Ebner, N. M. Rupniak, A. Saria, and N. Singewald, “Substance P in the medial amygdala: emotional stress-sensitive release and modulation of anxiety-related behavior in rats,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 12, pp. 4280–4285, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. K. Ebner, S. B. Sartori, and N. Singewald, “Tachykinin receptors as therapeutic targets in stress-related disorders,” Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 15, no. 14, pp. 1647–1674, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. T. Furmark, L. Appel, Å. Michelgård et al., “Cerebral blood flow changes after treatment of social phobia with the neurokinin-1 antagonist GR205171, citalopram, or placebo,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 132–142, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. C. Louis, J. Stemmelin, D. Boulay, O. Bergis, C. Cohen, and G. Griebel, “Additional evidence for anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like activities of saredutant (SR48968), an antagonist at the neurokinin-2 receptor in various rodent-models,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 36–45, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. P. W. Smith and L. A. Dawson, “Neurokinin 3 (NK3) receptor modulators for the treatment of psychiatric disorders,” Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. P. E. Sawchenko, L. W. Swanson, and R. Grzanna, “Colocalization of neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in brainstem catecholaminergic neurons that project to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 241, no. 2, pp. 138–153, 1985. View at Scopus
  121. J. P. Redrobe, Y. Dumont, A. Fournier, G. B. Baker, and R. Quirion, “Role of serotonin (5-HT) in the antidepressant-like properties of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the mouse forced swim test,” Peptides, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1394–1400, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. M. Heilig, B. Soderpalm, J. A. Engel, and E. Widerlov, “Centrally administered neuropeptide Y (NPY) produces anxiolytic-like effects in animal anxiety models,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 524–529, 1989. View at Scopus
  123. A. Kask, J. Harro, S. von Hörsten, J. P. Redrobe, Y. Dumont, and R. Quirion, “The neurocircuitry and receptor subtypes mediating anxiolytic-like effects of neuropeptide Y,” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 259–283, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. M. Nakajima, A. Inui, A. Asakawa et al., “Neuropeptide Y produces anxiety via Y2-type receptors,” Peptides, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 359–363, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. G. Sørensen, C. Lindberg, G. Wörtwein, T. G. Bolwig, and D. P. D. Woldbye, “Differential roles for neuropeptide Y Y1 and Y5 receptors in anxiety and sedation,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 723–729, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. M. Heilig, “The NPY system in stress, anxiety and depression,” Neuropeptides, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 213–224, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. T. J. Sajdyk, S. D. Fitz, and A. Shekhar, “The role of neuropeptide Y in the amygdala on corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-mediated behavioral stress responses in the rat,” Stress, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. K. Eaton, F. R. Sallee, and R. Sah, “Relevance of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in psychiatry,” Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 7, no. 17, pp. 1645–1659, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. N. Lindefors, A. Linden, S. Brene, G. Sedvall, and H. Persson, “CCK peptides and mRNA in the human brain,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 671–690, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. F. J. Vaccarino and J. Rankin, “Nucleus accumbens cholecystokinin (CCK) can either attenuate or potentiate amphetamine-induced locomotor activity: evidence for rostral–caudal differences in accumbens CCK function,” Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 831–836, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. J. N. Crawley, “Subtype-selective cholecystokinin receptor antagonists block cholecystokinin modulation of dopamine-mediated behaviors in the rat mesolimbic pathway,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 3380–3391, 1992. View at Scopus
  132. A. Goldstein, W. Fischli, L. I. Lowney, M. Hunkapiller, and L. Hood, “Porcine pituitary dynorphin: complete amino acid sequence of the biologically active heptadecapeptide,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 7219–7223, 1981. View at Scopus
  133. K. M. Hegadoren, T. O'Donnell, R. Lanius, N. J. Coupland, and N. Lacaze-Masmonteil, “The role of β-endorphin in the pathophysiology of major depression,” Neuropeptides, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 341–353, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. L. De Lecea, T. S. Kilduff, C. Peyron et al., “The hypocretins: hypothalamus-specific peptides with neuroexcitatory activity,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 322–327, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. Y. Date, Y. Ueta, H. Yamashita et al., “Orexins, orexigenic hypothalamic peptides, interact with autonomic, neuroendocrine and neuroregulatory systems,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 748–753, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. T. Nambu, T. Sakurai, K. Mizukami, Y. Hosoya, M. Yanagisawa, and K. Goto, “Distribution of orexin neurons in the adult rat brain,” Brain Research, vol. 827, no. 1-2, pp. 243–260, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. T. Sakurai, A. Amemiya, M. Ishii et al., “Orexins and orexin receptors: a family of hypothalamic neuropeptides and G protein-coupled receptors that regulate feeding behavior,” Cell, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 573–585, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. B. Stanley, L. Traskman-Bendz, and M. Stanley, “The suicide assessment scale: a scale evaluating change in suicidal behavior,” Psychopharmacology Bulletin, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 200–205, 1986. View at Scopus
  139. Y. Dumont, J. C. Morales-Medina, and R. Quirion, “Neuropeptide Y and its role in anxiety-related disorders,” in Transmitters and Modulators In Health and Disease, S. Shioda, I. Homma, and N. Kato, Eds., pp. 51–82, Springer, Kato Bunmeisha, 2009.
  140. S. Thakker-Varia and J. Alder, “Neuropeptides in depression: role of VGF,” Behavioural Brain Research, vol. 197, no. 2, pp. 262–278, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. E. Kuteeva, T. Wardi, L. Lundström et al., “Differential role of galanin receptors in the regulation of depression-like behavior and monoamine/stress-related genes at the cell body level,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2573–2585, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. N. F. Biguet, M. Buda, A. Lamouroux, D. Samolyk, and J. Mallet, “Time course of the changes of TH mRNA in rat brain and adrenal medulla after a single injection of reserpine,” The EMBO Journal, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 287–291, 1986. View at Scopus
  143. A. Berod, N. F. Biguet, S. Dumas, B. Bloch, and J. Mallet, “Modulation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in the central nervous system visualized by in situ hybridization,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 1699–1703, 1987. View at Scopus
  144. P. V. Holmes, D. Caroline Blanchard, R. J. Blanchard, L. S. Brady, and J. N. Crawley, “Chronic social stress increases levels of preprogalanin mRNA in the rat locus coeruleus,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 655–660, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. J. C. Morales-Medina, Y. Dumont, and R. Quirion, “A possible role of neuropeptide Y in depression and stress,” Brain Research, vol. 1314, pp. 194–205, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. G. Griebel and F. Holsboer, “Neuropeptide receptor ligands as drugs for psychiatric diseases: the end of the beginning?” Nature Review Drug Discovery, vol. 11, pp. 462–478, 2012.