Table 1: Anticonvulsant studies of the efficacy of medicinal plants in TIM.

Name of plantPart used in TIMActive constituentExperimental Model of seizuresClinical trialsReference

Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae) FruitsEthanolic extract of fruitsPTZ, MES, and PC*[9]
Anacyclus pyrethrum (compositae) RootChloroform fraction of root
Root ethanolic extract
Hydroalcoholic root extract
PTZ, ICES*  
MES
PTZ, MES
[1013]
Pimpinella anisum  
(Umbelliferae)
SeedAnise seed oil
Methanol seed extract
PTZ, MES
PC
[1417]
Laurus nobilis  
(Lauraceae)
Fruits (seed)Leaf essential oilPTZ, MES[18]
Origanum majorana  
(Labiatae)
Aerial partsPet ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol, and aqueous extractsPTZ, MES[19]
Nigella sativa  
(Ranunculaceae)
SeedAqueous seed extract
Seed essential oil
PTZ
PTZ
Childhood refractory epilepsy[2022]
ThymoquinonePTZ, MESChildhood refractory epilepsy[2325]
Piper longum  
(Piperaceae)
FruitsAqueous fruit extractPTZ, strychnine, and 4-aminopyridine[26]
PiperineUncontrolled epilepsy**[27]
Pilocarpine
Threshold doses of kainite
L-glutamate,
N-methyl-D-aspartate guanidinosuccinate
[28, 29]
Ferula gummosa  
(Apiaceae)
Gum resinFruit essential oil
seed acetone extract
PTZ, MES
PTZ, MES
[3032]
Ferula assa-foetida  
(Apiaceae)
Gum resinGum ethanolic extractPTZ[33]
Brassica nigra  
(Brassicaceae)
FruitsSeed extractPTZ[34]
Caesalpinia bonducella  (Caesalpiniaceae)FruitsSeed pet ether extractPTZ, MES, strychnine, and PC[35]
Lavandula stoechas  
(Lamiaceae)
Aerial partsAqueous-methanolic extract of flowerPTZ[36]
Ruta graveolens  
(Rutaceae)
Aerial partsHydroalcoholic extractPTZ[37]

PTZ: pentylenetetrazole, MES: maximum electroshock, PC: picrotoxin, ICES: increasing current electroshock.
**Effect of piperin on oral bioavailability of phenytoin.