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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 715603, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/715603
Research Article

Altered mRNA Expression Related to the Apoptotic Effect of Three Xanthones on Human Melanoma SK-MEL-28 Cell Line

1Department of Medical Biotechnology, Flinders Medical Sciences and Technology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, Flinders University, Level 4, Health Science Building, Registry Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, SA 5042, Australia
2Flinders Centre for Marine Bioproducts Development (FCMBD), Flinders University, Level 4, Health Science Building, Registry Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide, SA 5042, Australia

Received 30 April 2013; Revised 9 August 2013; Accepted 23 August 2013

Academic Editor: Heide Schatten

Copyright © 2013 Jing J. Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We previously demonstrated that α-mangostin, γ-mangostin, and 8-deoxygartanin have significant cytotoxic effects on human melanoma SK-MEL-28 cell line. The current study revealed the underlying mechanisms. α-Mangostin (7.5 μg/mL) activated caspase activity, with a 3-fold and 4-fold increased caspase 8 and 9 activity, respectively. The molecular mechanisms were investigated by qRT-PCR for mRNA related to cell cycle arrest in G1 phase ( and cyclin D1), apoptosis (cytochrome C, Bcl-2, and Bax), and survival pathways (Akt1, NFκB, and IκBα). α-Mangostin significantly upregulated mRNA expression of cytochrome C and and downregulated that of cyclin D1, Akt1, and NFκB. γ-Mangostin significantly downregulated mRNA expression of Akt1 and NFκB and upregulated and IκBα. 8-Deoxygartanin significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of and downregulated that of cyclin D1 and NFκB. The three xanthones significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of the BRAF V600E mutation. Moreover, α-mangostin and γ-mangostin significantly downregulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser473. In conclusion, the three xanthones induced an inhibitory effect on SK-MEL-28 cells by modulating the molecular targets involved in the apoptotic pathways.