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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 717546, 4 pages
Research Article

In Vivo Healthy Knee Kinematics during Dynamic Full Flexion

1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, 231 MAE-A Building, P.O. Box 116250, Gainesville, FL 32611-6250, USA
2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ehime University, 10-13 Dogo-himata, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577, Japan

Received 11 September 2012; Accepted 25 October 2012

Academic Editor: José M. Vilar

Copyright © 2013 Satoshi Hamai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Healthy knee kinematics during dynamic full flexion were evaluated using 3D-to-2D model registration techniques. Continuous knee motions were recorded during full flexion in a lunge from 85° to 150°. Medial and lateral tibiofemoral contacts and femoral internal-external and varus-valgus rotations were analyzed as a function of knee flexion angle. The medial tibiofemoral contact translated anteroposteriorly, but remained on the center of the medial compartment. On the other hand, the lateral tibiofemoral contact translated posteriorly to the edge of the tibial surface at 150° flexion. The femur exhibited external and valgus rotation relative to the tibia over the entire activity and reached 30° external and 5° valgus rotations at 150° flexion. Kinematics’ data during dynamic full flexion may provide important insight as to the designing of high-flexion total knee prostheses.