Table 1: Baseline characteristics of patients with high-normal and low-normal body lead burden at the beginning of the observation period*.

VariableLow-normal BLB group High-normal BLB group value
( ) ( )
( )( )

Age (yr)
 Mean ± SD60.7 ± 8.359.8 ± 10.1 0.698
 Range46–7933–83
Sex (no. of patients)
 Men/women17/1041/210.812
Education yrs >9 yrs (no. of patients)13 (39.4)30 (40.5)0.911
Body-mass index (kg/m2)
 Mean ± SD24.5 ± 3.025.1 ± 3.7 0.459
 Range17.6–32.314.9–33.4
Hyperlipidemia (no. of patients) (%)16 (60.6)46 (68.9)0.210
Use of statin drugs (no. of patients) (%) 15 (57.6)41 (60.8)0.352
Hypertension (no. of patients) (%)26 (97.0)58 (94.6)0.999
Use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor antagonists (no. of patients) (%)27 (100.0)60 (98.6)0.999
Use of nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (no. of patients) (%)10 (48.5)22 (33.8)0.999
Use of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (no. of patients) (%)9 (27.3)24 (40.5)0.812
Smoking (no. of patients) (%)5 (15.2)9 (24.3)0.753
History of cardiovascular disease (no. of patients) (%)8 (36.4)21 (29.7)0.808
Use of insulin at entry (no. of patients) (%)6 (18.2)16 (24.3)0.795
HbA1c (%)
 Mean ± SD8.2 ± 2.18.6 ± 1.8 0.367
 Range5.8–14.05.7–14.7
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg)
 Mean ± SD96.6 ± 12.098.6 ± 11.9 0.477
 Range68.7–12075–126
Cholesterol (mg/dL)
 Mean ± SD211.0 ± 38.2217.2 ± 54.5 0.596
 Range124–278105–414
Triglycerides (mg/dL)
 Mean ± SD211.3 ± 107.2206.2 ± 187.6 0.697
 Range91–63556–1185
Serum creatinine (mg/dL)
 Mean ± SD1.79 ± 0.211.88 ± 0.30 0.170
 Range1.5–3.71.5–3.8
Creatinine clearance rate (mL/min/1.73 m2)
 Mean ± SD44.9 ± 10.841.1 ± 12.0 0.123
 Range29.2–61.424.6–70.9
Glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m2)
 Mean ± SD42.4 ± 6.240.8 ± 7.1 0.380
 Range31.9–58.330.3–59.9
Blood lead (μg/dL)#
 Mean ± SD3.8 ± 3.04.6 ± 3.10.278
 Range1.6–10.40.8–10.3
Body lead burden (μg)#
 Mean ± SD58.1 ± 16.7132.4 ± 46.1 0.001
 Range14.4–79.882.8–316.8
Daily protein excretion (g)
 Mean ± SD2.8 ± 2.53.2 ± 2.4 0.364
 Range0.5–10.50.5–12.2
Daily protein intake (g/kg)
 Mean ± SD0.99 ± 0.160.96 ± 0.18 0.569
 Range0.60–1.550.53–1.68

*A high-normal body lead burden was defined as a lead value of at least 80  g (0.39 μmol) but less than 600 μg (2.9 μmol) and a low-normal body lead burden as a lead value less than 80 μg (0.39 μmol).
values were calculated by Fisher’s Chi-square test, except in the comparisons of age, body-mass index, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, glomerular filtration rate, blood lead level, and body lead burden, which were calculated by Student’s -test.
To convert values for serum creatinine to micromoles per liter, multiply by 88.4.
Modified equation for glomerular filtration rate of Chinese diabetic patients.
#To convert values for lead to micromoles per liter, multiply by 0.04286.
Hyperlipidemia was defined as a serum cholesterol level above 240 mg per deciliter (6.2 mmol per liter) after diet control.
Hypertension was defined by the presence of at least two blood-pressure measurements above 140/90 mmHg in patients.
Cardiovascular diseases included ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, stroke, and diabetic foot.