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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 754802, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/754802
Review Article

Abnormal Cell Responses and Role of TNF- in Impaired Diabetic Wound Healing

1School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
2Department of Periodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
3Department of Preventive Dentistry, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081, China

Received 25 October 2012; Accepted 17 December 2012

Academic Editor: Jorge Berlanga Acosta

Copyright © 2013 Fanxing Xu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Impaired diabetic wound healing constitutes a major health problem. The impaired healing is caused by complex factors such as abnormal keratinocyte and fibroblast migration, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, abnormal macrophage polarization, impaired recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and decreased vascularization. Diabetes-enhanced and prolonged expression of TNF-α also contributes to impaired healing. In this paper, we discuss the abnormal cell responses in diabetic wound healing and the contribution of TNF-α.