About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 760963, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/760963
Research Article

JIS Definition Identified More Malaysian Adults with Metabolic Syndrome Compared to the NCEP-ATP III and IDF Criteria

1Primary Care Medicine Discipline, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
2Centre for Translational Research and Epidemiology (CenTRE), Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
3Population Health & Preventive Medicine Discipline, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
4Physiology Discipline, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
5Centre for Pathology & Diagnostic Research Laboratory (CPDRL), Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
6Cardiology Discipline, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 47000 Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia

Received 28 April 2013; Accepted 22 June 2013

Academic Editor: Leo J. Schouten

Copyright © 2013 Anis Safura Ramli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. M. Reaven, “Role of insulin resistance in human disease,” Diabetes, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1595–1607, 1988. View at Scopus
  2. S. M. Grundy, “Metabolic syndrome: a multiplex cardiovascular risk factor,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 399–404, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Lann and D. LeRoith, “Insulin resistance as the underlying cause for the metabolic syndrome,” Medical Clinics of North America, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 1063–1077, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Gustafson, A. Hammarstedt, C. X. Andersson, and U. Smith, “Inflamed adipose tissue: a culprit underlying the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 2276–2283, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. M. Nilsson, “Cardiovascular risk in the metabolic syndrome: fact or fiction?” Current Cardiology Reports, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 479–485, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. Sattar, A. McConnachie, A. G. Shaper et al., “Can metabolic syndrome usefully predict cardiovascular disease and diabetes? Outcome data from two prospective studies,” The Lancet, vol. 371, no. 9628, pp. 1927–1935, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. G. Alberti and P. Z. Zimmet, “Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus, and its complications, part I: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 15, pp. 539–553, 1998.
  8. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III), “Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report,” Circulation, vol. 106, pp. 3143–3421, 2002.
  9. K. G. Alberti, P. Zimmet, J. Shaw, and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Epidemiology Task Force Consensus Group, “The metabolic syndrome: a new world- wide definition,” The Lancet, vol. 366, pp. 1059–1062, 2005.
  10. S. M. Grundy, J. I. Cleeman, S. R. Daniels et al., “Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 17, pp. 2735–2752, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. G. M. M. Alberti, R. H. Eckel, S. M. Grundy et al., “Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the international diabetes federation task force on epidemiology and prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity,” Circulation, vol. 120, no. 16, pp. 1640–1645, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. P. Stern, K. Williams, C. González-Villalpando, K. J. Hunt, and S. M. Haffner, “Does the metabolic-syndrome improve identification of individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease?” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 2676–2681, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. W. F. Wilson, R. B. D'Agostino, H. Parise, L. Sullivan, and J. B. Meigs, “Metabolic syndrome as a precursor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 20, pp. 3066–3072, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Sundström, U. Risérus, L. Byberg, B. Zethelius, H. Lithell, and L. Lind, “Clinical value of the metabolic syndrome for long term prediction of total and cardiovascular mortality: prospective, population based cohort study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 332, no. 7546, pp. 878–882, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. S. Gami, B. J. Witt, D. E. Howard et al., “Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident cardiovascular events and death. A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 403–414, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. M. Grundy, “Metabolic syndrome pandemic,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 28, pp. 629–636, 2008.
  17. W.-H. Pan, W.-T. Yeh, and L.-C. Weng, “Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome in Asia,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 37–42, 2008. View at Scopus
  18. S. Selvarajah, J. Haniff, G. Kaur, et al., “Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in a middle-income country: a call for urgency,” European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 368–375, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. H. M. Termizy and M. Mafauzy, “Metabolic syndrome and its characteristics among obese patients attending an obesity clinic,” Singapore Medical Journal, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 390–394, 2009. View at Scopus
  20. L. R. M. Zainuddin, N. F. Isa, W. M. Wan Muda, and H. J. Mohamed, “The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to various definitions and hypertriglyceridemic-waist in Malaysian adults,” International Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 229–237, 2011. View at Scopus
  21. W. N. Mohamud, A. A. Ismail, A. Sharifuddin, et al., “Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in adult Malaysians: results of a nationwide survey,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 91–97, 2012.
  22. Department of Statistics Malaysia Census, “Changing patterns of utilization and analysis of population census data,” in Proceedings of the 24th Population Census Conference, Hong Kong, China, March 2009, http://www.ancsdaap.org/cencon2009/Papers/Malaysia/Malaysia.paper%2Bappendix.pdf.
  23. P. Nestel, R. Lyu, P. L. Lip et al., “Metabolic syndrome: recent prevalence in East and Southeast Asian populations,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 362–367, 2007. View at Scopus
  24. C. M. Y. Lee, R. R. Huxley, M. Woodward et al., “Comparisons of metabolic syndrome definitions in four populations of the Asia-Pacific region,” Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 37–46, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Lee, S. Ma, D. Heng et al., “Should central obesity be an optional or essential component of the metabolic syndrome? Ischemic heart disease risk in the Singapore cardiovascular cohort study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 343–347, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. K. Sharma, A. Ghimire, J. Radhakrishnan, et al., “Prevalence of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in Nepal,” International Journal of Hypertension, vol. 2011, Article ID 821971, 9 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. V. G. Athyros, E. S. Ganotakis, K. Tziomalos et al., “Comparison of four definitions of the metabolic syndrome in a Greek (Mediterranean) population,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 713–719, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. B. Ervin, “Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults 20 years of age and over, by sex, age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index: United States, 2003–2006,” National Health Statistics Reports, no. 13, pp. 1–7, 2009. View at Scopus
  29. A. Delavari, M. H. Forouzanfar, S. Alikhani, A. Sharifian, and R. Kelishadi, “First nationwide study of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and optimal cutoff points of waist circumference in the middle east: the national survey of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases of Iran,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1092–1097, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Ravikiran, A. Bhansali, P. RaviKumar et al., “Prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome among Asian Indians: a community survey,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 181–188, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Misra and L. Khurana, “The metabolic syndrome in South Asians: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention,” Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 497–514, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. P. Reilly and D. J. Rader, “The metabolic syndrome: more than the sum of its parts?” Circulation, vol. 108, no. 13, pp. 1546–1551, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. Poulsen, A. Vaag, K. Kyvik, and H. Beck-Nielsen, “Genetic versus environmental aetiology of the metabolic syndrome among male and female twins,” Diabetologia, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 537–543, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Alkerwi, A.-F. Donneau, N. Sauvageot et al., “Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Luxembourg according to the Joint Interim Statement definition estimated from the ORISCAV-LUX study,” BMC Public Health, vol. 11, article 4, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. T. Katzmarzyk, I. Janssen, R. Ross, T. S. Church, and S. N. Blair, “The importance of waist circumference in the definition of metabolic syndrome: prospective analyses of mortality in men,” Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 404–409, 2006. View at Scopus
  36. C. M. Khoo, C. F. Liew, S. K. Chew, and E. S. Tai, “The impact of central obesity as a prerequisite for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome,” Obesity, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 262–269, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. M. Alexander, P. B. Landsman, and S. M. Grundy, “The influence of age and body mass index on the metabolic syndrome and its components,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 246–250, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Mafauzy, “The problems and challenges of the aging population of Malaysia,” Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 1–3, 2000.
  39. K. S. Ambigga, A. S. Ramli, A. Suthahar, N. Tauhid, L. Clearihan, and C. Browning, “Bridging the gap in ageing: translating policies into practice in Malaysian primary care,” Asia Pacific Family Medicine, vol. 10, no. 1, article 2, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, “The National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2011: factsheet,” Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2012.
  41. J. Scholze, E. Alegria, C. Ferri et al., “Epidemiological and economic burden of metabolic syndrome and its consequences in patients with hypertension in Germany, Spain and Italy; a prevalence-based model,” BMC Public Health, vol. 10, article 529, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. National Cardiovascular Disease Database, “Annual report of the NCVD-ACS registry Malaysia 2013,” Tech. Rep., National Cardiovascular Disease Database, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2013.
  43. H. Ueshima, A. Sekikawa, K. Miura et al., “Cardiovascular disease and risk factors in Asia: a selected review,” Circulation, vol. 118, no. 25, pp. 2702–2709, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. Non-Communicable Disease Section, Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, “National Strategic Plan for Non-Communicable Disease (NSPNCD): medium term strategic plan to further strengthen the cardiovascular diseases and diabetes prevention and control program in Malaysia (2010-2014),” Non-Communicable Disease Section, Disease Control Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia, 2010.
  45. WHO, “Preventing chronic diseases: a vital investment,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2005, http://www.who.int/chp/chronic_disease_report/full_report.pdf.
  46. S. Capewell and M. O'Flaherty, “Rapid mortality falls after risk-factor changes in populations,” The Lancet, vol. 378, no. 9793, pp. 752–753, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. S. Guo, W. Wu, W. C. Chumlea, and A. F. Roche, “Predicting overweight and obesity in adulthood from body mass index values in childhood and adolescence,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 653–658, 2002. View at Scopus
  48. E. Waters, A. de Silva-Sanigorski, B. J. Hall et al., “Interventions for preventing obesity in children,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 12, Article ID CD001871, 2011. View at Scopus
  49. A. Rubinstein, L. Colantonio, A. Bardach et al., “Estimation of the burden of cardiovascular disease attributable to modifiable risk factors and cost-effectiveness analysis of preventative interventions to reduce this burden in Argentina,” BMC Public Health, vol. 10, article 627, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. S. Ramli and S. W. Taher, “Managing chronic diseases in the Malaysian primary health care—a need for change,” Malaysian Family Physician, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 7–13, 2008. View at Scopus
  51. New Straits Times, “Healthcare for FREE,” 2010, http://www.malaysia-today.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=33023:healthcare-for-free&catid=19:newscommentaries&Itemid=100131.