About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 761823, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/761823
Research Article

Increased Expression of CCN2 in the Red Flashing Light-Induced Myopia in Guinea Pigs

Department of Ophthalmology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, 107 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan 250012, China

Received 6 April 2013; Revised 11 June 2013; Accepted 18 June 2013

Academic Editor: Youhua Liu

Copyright © 2013 Hong Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. R. Fredrick, “Myopia,” British Medical Journal, vol. 324, no. 7347, pp. 1195–1199, 2002. View at Scopus
  2. J. Ma, X. M. Zhang, H. J. Wang, et al., “The effect of flicker from television screen on the function of visual accommodation,” Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 204–206, 2001.
  3. H. Wang, K. Zhuang, Y. Tao, et al., “Effects of light pollution on development of myopia in guinea pigs,” Journal of Environmental Health, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 388–390, 2007.
  4. B. Perbal, “CCN proteins: multifunctional signalling regulators,” The Lancet, vol. 363, no. 9402, pp. 62–64, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. de Winter, P. Leoni, and D. Abraham, “Connective tissue growth factor: structure-function relationships of a mosaic, multifunctional protein,” Growth Factors, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 80–91, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. I. Cicha and M. Goppelt-Struebe, “Connective tissue growth factor: context-dependent functions and mechanisms of regulation,” BioFactors, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 200–208, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. A. Arnott, A. G. Lambi, C. Mundy et al., “The role of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in skeletogenesis,” Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 43–69, 2011. View at Scopus
  8. F. Huang and Y. G. Chen, “Regulation of TGF-β receptor activity,” Cell & Bioscience, vol. 2, p. 9, 2012.
  9. X. Guo and S. Y. Chen, “Transforming growth factor-β and smooth muscle differentiation,” World Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 41–52, 2012.
  10. J. Massagué, S. W. Blain, and R. S. Lo, “TGFβ signaling in growth control, cancer, and heritable disorders,” Cell, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 295–309, 2000. View at Scopus
  11. A. Igarashi, H. Okochi, D. M. Bradham, and G. R. Grotendorst, “Regulation of connective tissue growth factor gene expression in human skin fibroblasts and during wound repair,” Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 637–645, 1993. View at Scopus
  12. Z.-Y. Cheng, J.-H. Li, R. Li, and Y.-B. Xie, “Effects of flashing light on ocular growth and development of myopia in pigmented guinea pigs,” Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 601–604, 2004. View at Scopus
  13. S. A. McFadden, M. H. C. Howlett, and J. R. Mertz, “Retinoic acid signals the direction of ocular elongation in the guinea pig eye,” Vision Research, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 643–653, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. X. Zhou, J. Ye, M. D. P. Willcox et al., “Changes in protein profiles of guinea pig sclera during development of form deprivation myopia and recovery,” Molecular Vision, vol. 16, pp. 2163–2174, 2010. View at Scopus
  15. H. L. Zhao, R. Q. Wang, M. Q. Wu, et al., “Dynamic changes of ocular biometric parameters: a modified form-deprivation myopia model of young guinea pigs,” International Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 484–488, 2011.
  16. M. H. C. Howlett and S. A. McFadden, “Form-deprivation myopia in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus),” Vision Research, vol. 46, no. 1-2, pp. 267–283, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. H. C. Howlett and S. A. McFadden, “Spectacle lens compensation in the pigmented guinea pig,” Vision Research, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 219–227, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Jiang, K. Long, F. Schaeffel et al., “Disruption of emmetropization and high susceptibility to deprivation myopia in albino guinea pigs,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 6124–6132, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. A. Summers Rada, S. Shelton, and T. T. Norton, “The sclera and myopia,” Experimental Eye Research, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 185–200, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. A. Rada, D. L. Nickla, and D. Troilo, “Decreased proteoglycan synthesis associated with form deprivation myopia in mature primate eyes,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 2050–2058, 2000. View at Scopus
  21. M. Murphy, C. Godson, S. Cannon et al., “Suppression subtractive hybridization identifies high glucose levels as a stimulus for expression of connective tissue growth factor and other genes in human mesangial cells,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 274, no. 9, pp. 5830–5834, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. X. Shi-Wen, A. Leask, and D. Abraham, “Regulation and function of connective tissue growth factor/CCN2 in tissue repair, scarring and fibrosis,” Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 133–144, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. Furlong, J. Crean, L. Thornton, R. O'Leary, M. Murphy, and F. Martin, “Dysregulated intracellular signaling impairs CTGF-stimulated responses in human mesangial cells exposed to high extracellular glucose,” American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology, vol. 292, no. 6, pp. F1691–F1700, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. K. Crean, F. Furlong, D. Finlay et al., “Connective tissue growth factor [CTGF]/CCN2 stimulates mesangial cell migration through integrated dissolution of focal adhesion complexes and activation of cell polarization,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 1541–1543, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. K. Crean, F. Furlong, D. Mitchell, E. McArdle, C. Godson, and F. Martin, “Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2 stimulates actin disassembly through Akt/protein kinase B-mediated phosphorylation and cytoplasmic translocation of p27(Kip-1),” The FASEB Journal, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1712–1714, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. E.-D. A. Moussad and D. R. Brigstock, “Connective tissue growth factor: what's in a name?” Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, vol. 71, no. 1-2, pp. 276–292, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. G. Browne, S. L. Ho, R. Kane et al., “Connective tissue growth factor is increased in pseudoexfoliation glaucoma,” Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 3660–3666, 2011. View at Scopus
  28. J. G. Abreu, N. I. Ketpura, B. Reversade, and E. M. de Robertis, “Connective-tissue growth factor (CTGF) modulates cell signalling by BMP and TGF-β,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 599–604, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. J. Kuiper, P. Roestenberg, C. Ehlken et al., “Angiogenesis is not impaired in Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) knock-out mice,” Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, vol. 55, no. 11, pp. 1139–1147, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus