Table 1: Comparison of engineering parameters in different TE bioreactors.

Bioreactor typeGeneral descriptionsMass transfer mechanismShear stressSpecial usageTissueConsiderations

Static cultureBatch culture with no flow of nutrientDiffusion (high)Very lowCell proliferationHomogeneous structure of cell constructs and nutrient diffusion limitations

762132.table.001aMagnetically stirring of mediumConvection (high)HighDynamic seeding of scaffoldsCartilageAppropriate scaffold and balance between increasing mass transfer and modulating shear stresses

762132.table.001bRotating at a speed so the constructs in the reactor are maintained “stationary” in a state of continuous free fallConvection (high)LowTissue constructs which need dynamic laminar flowCartilage, bone and skinOperating conditions (e.g., speed of rotating) especially for growing large tissue mass

762132.table.001cFlow of medium over or through a cell population or bed of cellsConvection (moderate) and diffusion (high)ModerateTissues physicochemicaly and environmentally relevant to human tissuesEpithelial cells, intestinal, bone, cartilage, and arteriesSeeding and attachment of human cells especially within the scaffold body