- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 765352, 9 pages
Genotoxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitro-Derived in Respirable Airborne Particulate Matter Collected from Urban Areas of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
1Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofísica e Biometria, Laboratório de Mutagênese Ambiental, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
2Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Departamento de Química Ambiental, 27537-000 Resende, RJ, Brazil
3Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Farmanguinhos Plataforma de Métodos Analíticos, 21040-360 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
4Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Biomédico, Departamento de Genética e Biologia Molecular, Laboratório de Genotoxicidade, 20211-040 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Received 2 April 2013; Accepted 11 April 2013
Academic Editor: John B. Vincent
Copyright © 2013 Claudia Ramos de Rainho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- M. Sørensen, H. Autrup, P. Møller et al., “Linking exposure to environmental pollutants with biological effects,” Mutation Research, vol. 544, no. 2-3, pp. 255–271, 2003.
- T. M. C. M. de Kok, H. A. L. Driece, J. G. F. Hogervorst, and J. J. Briedé, “Toxicological assessment of ambient and traffic-related particulate matter: a review of recent studies,” Mutation Research, vol. 613, no. 2-3, pp. 103–122, 2006.
- N. Gouveia, G. A. S. Mendonça, A. P. Leon et al., “Poluição do ar e efeitos na saúde nas populações de duas grandes metropóles brasileiras,” Epidemiologia e Serviços de Saúde, vol. 12, pp. 29–240, 2003.
- W. L. Junger, A. P. Leon, and G. A. S. Mendonça, “Associação entre mortalidade diária por câncer de pulmão e poluição do ar no município do Rio de Janeiro: um estudo ecológico de séries temporais,” Revista Brasileira de Cancerologia, vol. 51, pp. 111–115, 2005.
- H. A. Castro, M. F. Cunha, G. A. S. Mendonça, W. L. Junger, J. C. Cruz, and A. P. Leon, “Efeitos da poluição do ar na função respiratória de escolares, Rio de Janeiro, RJ,” Revista Saúde Pública, vol. 43, pp. 26–34, 2009.
- M. Moura, W. L. Junger, G. A. E. S. Mendonça, and A. P. de Leon, “Air quality and emergency pediatric care for symptoms of bronchial obstruction categorized by age bracket in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,” Caderno Saúde Pública, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 635–644, 2009.
- S. M. Oh, H. R. Kim, Y. J. Park, S. Y. Lee, and K. H. Chung, “Organic extracts of urban air pollution particulate matter (PM2.5)-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells),” Mutation Research, vol. 723, no. 2, pp. 142–151, 2011.
- L. D. Claxton, P. P. Matthews, and S. H. Warren, “The genotoxicity of ambient outdoor air, a review: salmonella mutagenicity,” Mutation Research, vol. 567, no. 2-3, pp. 347–399, 2004.
- T. Enya, H. Suzuki, T. Watanabe, T. Hirayama, and Y. Hisamatsu, “3-Nitrobenzanthrone, a powerful bacterial mutagen and suspected human carcinogen found in diesel exhaust and airborne particulates,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 2772–2776, 1997.
- WHO-IPCS INCHEM, “Selected nitro- and nitro-oxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,” Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) Monograph 229, 2003.
- G. D. A. Umbuzeiro, A. Franco, D. Magalhães et al., “A preliminary characterization of the mutagenicity of atmospheric particulate matter collected during sugar cane harvesting using the salmonella/microsome microsuspension assay,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 249–255, 2008.
- D. M. DeMarini, L. R. Brooks, S. H. Warren, T. Kobayashi, M. I. Gilmour, and P. Singh, “Bioassay-directed fractionation and Salmonella mutagenicity of automobile and forklift diesel exhaust particles,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 112, no. 8, pp. 814–819, 2004.
- C. H. Marvin and L. M. Hewitt, “Analytical methods in bioassay-directed investigations of mutagenicity of air particulate material,” Mutation Research, vol. 636, no. 1–3, pp. 4–35, 2007.
- D. M. Leme and M. A. Marin-Morales, “Allium cepa test in environmental monitoring: a review on its application,” Mutation Research, vol. 682, no. 1, pp. 71–81, 2009.
- C. R. Rainho, A. M. A. Velho, C. A. F. Aiub, S. M. Corrêa, J. L. Mazzei, and I. Felzenszwalb, “Evaluation of urban airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5) in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) by mutagenicity assays,” in Essays on Environmental Studies, A. Sarin, Ed., pp. 1–8, Athens Institute for Education and Research, Athens, Ga, USA, 2012.
- V. M. F. Vargas, R. C. Horn, R. R. Guidobono, A. B. Mittelstaedt, and I. G. de Azevedo, “Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter from the urban area of Porto Alegre, Brazil,” Genetics and Molecular Biology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 247–253, 1998.
- M. V. Coronas, R. C. Horn, A. Ducatti, J. A. V. Rocha, and V. M. F. Vargas, “Mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter in a petrochemical industrial area,” Mutation Research, vol. 650, no. 2, pp. 196–201, 2008.
- T. S. Pereira, G. N. Gotor, L. S. Beltrami et al., “Salmonella mutagenicity assessment of airborne particulate matter collected from urban areas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, differing in anthropogenic influences and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels,” Mutation Research, vol. 702, no. 1, pp. 78–85, 2010.
- S. M. Corrêa and G. Arbilla, “A two-year monitoring program of aromatic hydrocarbons in Rio de Janeiro downtown area,” Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 539–543, 2007.
- N. Y. Kado, G. N. Guirguis, C. P. Flessel, R. C. Chan, K. Chang, and J. J. Wesolowski, “Mutagenicity of fine (<2.5 μm) airborne particles: diurnal variation in community air determined by a Salmonella micro preincubation (microsuspension) procedure,” Environmental Mutagenesis, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 53–66, 1986.
- D. M. Maron and B. N. Ames, “Revised methods for the Salmonella mutagenicity test,” Mutation Research, vol. 113, no. 3-4, pp. 173–215, 1983.
- M. Watanabe, M. Ishidate, and T. Nohmi, “A sensitive method for the detection of mutagenic nitroarenes: construction of nitroreductase-overproducing derivatives of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100,” Mutation Research, vol. 216, no. 4, pp. 211–220, 1989.
- L. Bernstein, J. Kaldor, J. McCann, and M. C. Pike, “An empirical approach to the statistical analysis of mutagenesis data from the Salmonella test,” Mutation Research, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 267–281, 1982.
- G. L. Cabrera and D. M. G. Rodriguez, “Genotoxicity of leachates from a landfill using three bioassays,” Mutation Research, vol. 426, no. 2, pp. 207–210, 1999.
- C. R. de Rainho, A. Kaezer, C. A. F. Aiub, and I. Felzenszwalb, “Ability of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in N-nitrosodiethylamine genotoxicity and mutagenicity evaluation,” Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 925–932, 2010.
- World Health Organization, Guidelines for Air Quality For Europe, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2nd edition, 2000.
- M. Ianistcki, J. Dallarosa, C. Sauer, C. E. Teixeira, and J. da Silva, “Genotoxic effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, evaluated by Helix aspersa (Müller, 1774),” Environmental Pollution, vol. 157, no. 7, pp. 2037–2042, 2009.
- L. Y. He, M. Hu, X. F. Huang, Y. H. Zhang, B. D. Yu, and D. Q. Liu, “Chemical characterization of fine particles from on-road vehicles in the Wutong tunnel in Shenzhen, China,” Chemosphere, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 1565–1573, 2006.
- Instituto Estadual do Ambiente (INEA), “Relatório Anual da Qualidade do Ar do Estado do Rio de Janeiro,” 2009, http://www.inea.rj.gov.br/downloads/relatorios/qualidade_ar_2009.pdf.
- “Só 14 unidades automáticas medem o ar que o carioca respira,” http://oglobo.globo.com/rio20/so-14-unidades-automaticas-medem-ar-que-carioca-respira-4948672.
- L. Y. He, M. Hu, X. F. Huang, Y. H. Zhang, and X. Y. Tang, “Seasonal pollution characteristics of organic compounds in atmospheric fine particles in Beijing,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 359, pp. 167–176, 2006.
- B. L. Valle-Hernández, V. Mugica-Álvarez, E. Salinas-Talavera et al., “Temporal variation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM10 and PM 2.5 collected in Northern Mexico City,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, pp. 5429–5438, 2010.
- G. Dongarrà, E. D. Manno, D. Varrica, M. Lombardo, and M. Vultaggio, “Study on ambient concentrations of PM10, PM10-2.5, PM2.5 and gaseous pollutants. Trace elements and chemical speciation of atmospheric particulates,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 44, no. 39, pp. 5244–5257, 2010.
- R. Mohanraj, S. Dhanakumar, and G. Solaraj, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bound to PM 2.5 in urban Coimbatore, India with emphasis on source apportionment,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2012, Article ID 980843, pp. 1–8, 2012.
- US Environmental Protection Agency, “Estimating Carcinogenic Potency for Mixtures of Polycyclic Organic Matter (POM) for the 1996 National-Scale Assessment,” Appendix H-3, Washington, DC, USA, 1996.
- S. H. Cadle, P. A. Mulawa, E. C. Hunsanger et al., “Composition of light-duty motor vehicle exhaust particulate matter in the Denver, Colorado area,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 33, no. 14, pp. 2328–2339, 1999.
- C. R. Rainho, A. M. A. Velho, C. A. F. Aiub, S. M. Corrêa, J. L. Mazzei, and L. Felzenszwalb, “Prediction of health risk due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in urban air in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,” Genetics and Molecular Research, 2013.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatichydrocarbons, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 1995.
- C. E. Boström, P. Gerde, A. Hanberg et al., “Cancer risk assessment, indicators, and guidelines for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 451–488, 2002.
- M. B. Fernandes, L. S. R. Brickus, J. C. Moreira, and J. N. Cardoso, “Atmospheric BTX and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,” Chemosphere, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 417–425, 2002.
- A. G. Miguel, J. M. Daisey, and J. A. Sousa, “Comparative study of the mutagenic and genotoxic activity associated with inhalable particulate matter in Rio de Janeiro air,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 36–43, 1990.
- R. Crebelli, S. Fuselli, A. Meneguz et al., “In vitro and in vivo mutagenicity studies with airborne particulate extracts,” Mutation Research, vol. 204, no. 4, pp. 565–575, 1988.
- M. Adonis and L. Gil, “Mutagenicity of organic extracts from Santiago (Chile) airborne particulate matter,” Mutation Research, vol. 292, no. 1, pp. 51–61, 1993.
- M. I. Z. Sato, G. A. Umbuzeiro, C. A. Coimbrão et al., “Mutagenicity of airborne particulate organic material from urban and industrial areas of São Paulo, Brazil,” Mutation Research, vol. 335, pp. 317–330, 1995.
- H. S. Rosenkranz and R. Mermelstein, “Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of nitroarenes. All nitro-containing chemicals were not created equal,” Mutation Research, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 217–267, 1983.
- J. N. Pitts Jr., “On the trail of atmospheric mutagens and carcinogens: a combined chemical/microbiological approach,” American Zoologist, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 415–431, 1985.
- V. M. F. Vargas, “Mutagenic activity as a parameter to assess ambient air quality for protection of the environment and human health,” Mutation Research, vol. 544, no. 2-3, pp. 313–319, 2003.
- B. S. de Martinis, N. Y. Kado, L. R. F. de Carvalho, R. A. Okamoto, and L. A. Gundel, “Genotoxicity of fractionated organic material in airborne particles from São Paulo, Brazil,” Mutation Research, vol. 446, no. 1, pp. 83–94, 1999.
- T. H. Ma, Z. Xu, C. Xu et al., “The improved Allium/Vicia root tip micronucleus assay for clastogenicity of environmental pollutants,” Mutation Research, vol. 334, no. 2, pp. 185–195, 1995.
- L. D. Claxton and G. M. Woodall, “A review of the mutagenicity and rodent carcinogenicity of ambient air,” Mutation Research, vol. 636, no. 1–3, pp. 36–94, 2007.
- T. C. C. Fernandes, D. E. C. Mazzeo, and M. A. Marin-Morales, “Mechanism of micronuclei formation in polyploidizated cells of Allium cepa exposed to trifluralin herbicide,” Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 252–259, 2007.
- G. Fiskesjö and C. Lassen, “Benzo[a]pireno and nitrosoguanidine in the Allium test,” Mutation Research, vol. 97, p. 188, 1982.
- R. J. Albertini, D. Anderson, G. R. Douglas, et al., “IPCS guideline for the monitoring of genotoxic effects of carcinogens in humans, International Programme on Chemical Safety,” Mutation Research, vol. 463, pp. 111–172, 2000.
- K. Al-Sabti, “Allium test for air and water borne pollution control,” Cytobios, vol. 58, no. 233, pp. 71–78, 1989.
- P. Poli, A. Buschini, F. M. Restivo et al., “Comet assay application in environmental monitoring: DNA damage in human leukocytes and plant cells in comparison with bacterial and yeast tests,” Mutagenesis, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 547–556, 1999.
- D. M. Leme, D. D. F. D. Angelis, and M. A. Marin-Morales, “Action mechanisms of petroleum hydrocarbons present in waters impacted by an oil spill on the genetic material of Allium cepa root cells,” Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 214–219, 2008.
- M. J. Moore, I. V. Mitrofanov, S. S. Valentini et al., “Cytochrome P4501A expression, chemical contaminants and histopathology in roach, goby and sturgeon and chemical contaminants in sediments from the Caspian Sea, Lake Balkhash and the Ily River Delta, Kazakhstan,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 107–119, 2003.
- R. A. Fatima and M. Ahmad, “Allium cepa derived EROD as a potential biomarker for the presence of certain pesticides in water,” Chemosphere, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 527–537, 2006.
- J. R. Petrulis and G. H. Perdew, “The role of chaperone proteins in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor core complex,” Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 141, no. 1-2, pp. 25–40, 2002.