About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 787616, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/787616
Review Article

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Chronic Diseases of Youths and Access to Health Care in the United States

1Health Education and Public Health, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
2Community Health, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306, USA
3Public Health, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY 40475, USA
4Health Sciences, Otterbein University, Westerville, OH 43081, USA

Received 30 April 2013; Accepted 8 August 2013

Academic Editor: Raul A. Mendoza-Sassi

Copyright © 2013 James H. Price et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. “Partnership to fight chronic disease,” Almanac of Chronic Disease, 2008, http://www.fightchronicdisease.org/.
  2. T. Bodenheimer, E. Chen, and H. D. Bennett, “Confronting the growing burden of chronic disease: can the U.S. health care workforce do the job?” Health Affairs, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 64–74, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. H. van der Lee, L. B. Mokkink, M. A. Grootenhuis, H. S. Heymans, and M. Offringa, “Definitions and measurement of chronic health conditions in childhood: a systematic review,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 297, no. 24, pp. 2741–2751, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. M. Perrin, S. R. Bloom, and S. L. Gortmaker, “The increase of childhood chronic conditions in the United States,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 297, no. 24, pp. 2755–2759, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. E. Adler and D. H. Rehkopf, “U.S. disparities in health: descriptions, causes, and mechanisms,” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 29, pp. 235–252, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. R. Gold and R. Wright, “Population disparities in asthma,” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 26, pp. 89–113, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. Akinbami, “The state of childhood asthma, United States, 1980–2005,” Advance Data, no. 381, pp. 1–24, 2006. View at Scopus
  8. G. Canino, E. L. McQuaid, and C. S. Rand, “Addressing asthma health disparities: a multilevel challenge,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 123, no. 6, pp. 1209–1217, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. J. Akinbami, J. E. Moorman, P. L. Garbe, and E. J. Sondik, “Status of childhood asthma in the United States, 1980–2007,” Pediatrics, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. S131–S145, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. J. Akinbami, J. E. Moorman, and X. Liu, “Asthma prevalence, health care use, and mortality: United States, 2005–2009,” National Health Statistics Reports, no. 32, pp. 1–14, 2011. View at Scopus
  11. C. L. M. Joseph, L. K. Williams, D. R. Ownby, J. Saltzgaber, and C. C. Johnson, “Applying epidemiologic concepts of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention to the elimination of racial disparities in asthma,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 233–240, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. K. Yeatts, K. J. Davis, M. Sotir, C. Herget, and C. Shy, “Who gets diagnosed with asthma? Frequent wheeze among adolescents with and without a diagnosis of asthma,” Pediatrics, vol. 111, no. 5, pp. 1046–1054, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. L. M. Joseph, D. R. Ownby, E. L. Peterson, and C. C. Johnson, “Does low birth weight help to explain the increased prevalence of asthma among African-Americans?” Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 507–512, 2002. View at Scopus
  14. A.-M. Brooks, R. S. Byrd, M. Weitzman, P. Auinger, and J. T. McBride, “Impact of low birth weight on early childhood asthma in the United States,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 155, no. 3, pp. 401–406, 2001. View at Scopus
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Neighborhood safety and the prevalence of physical inactivity-selected states, 1996,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 48, pp. 143–146, 1999.
  16. S. Braganza, P. O. Ozuah, and I. Sharif, “The use of complementary therapies in inner-city asthmatic children,” Journal of Asthma, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 823–827, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. E. Mansour, B. P. Lanphear, and T. G. DeWitt, “Barriers to asthma care in urban children: parent perspectives,” Pediatrics, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 512–519, 2000. View at Scopus
  18. S. J. Szefler, P. J. Gergen, H. Mitchell, and W. Morgan, “Achieving asthma control in the inner city: do the National Institutes of Health Asthma Guidelines really work?” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 521–526, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. S. Halterman, C. A. Aligne, P. Auinger, J. T. McBride, and P. G. Szilagyi, “Inadequate therapy for asthma among children in the united states,” Pediatrics, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 272–276, 2000. View at Scopus
  20. A. A. Galbraith, L. A. Smith, B. Bokhour et al., “Asthma care quality for children with minority-serving providers,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 164, no. 1, pp. 38–45, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. P. Goldman, G. F. Joyce, J. J. Escarce et al., “Pharmacy benefits and the use of drugs by the chronically ill,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 291, no. 19, pp. 2344–2350, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. T. M. Dall, Y. Zhang, Y. J. Chen, W. W. Quick, W. G. Yang, and J. Fogli, “The economic burden of diabetes,” Health Affairs, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 1–7, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. The American Diabetes Association, “Economic costs of diabetes in the US in 2007,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, pp. 576–615, 2008.
  24. E. S. Huang, A. Basu, M. O'Grady, and J. C. Capretta, “Projecting the future diabetes population size and related costs for the U.S,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 2225–2229, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. B. Schulze and F. B. Hu, “Primary prevention of diabetes: what can be done and how much can be prevented?” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 26, pp. 445–467, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. A. Bell, E. J. Mayer-Davis, J. W. Beyer et al., “Diabetes in non-hispanic white youth,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, supplement 2, pp. S102–S111, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. O. Pinhas-Hamiel and P. Zeitler, “The global spread of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 146, no. 5, pp. 693–700, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. J. Mayer-Davis, J. Beyer, R. A. Bell et al., “Diabetes in African American youth,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, supplement 2, pp. S112–S122, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. M. Lawrence, E. J. Mayer-Davis, K. Reynolds et al., “Diabetes in hispanic American youth,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, supplement 2, pp. S123–S132, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. C. Celentano, “Increased fruit and vegetable intake may reduce the nutrition-related health disparities in African American,” The American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 185–187, 2009.
  31. G. K. Singh, M. D. Kogan, and P. C. van Dyck, “Changes in state-specific childhood obesity and overweight prevalence in the United States from 2003 to 2007,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 164, no. 7, pp. 598–607, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. G. K. Singh, M. Siahpush, and M. D. Kogan, “Rising social inequalities in US childhood obesity, 2003–2007,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 40–52, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. M. Fahlman, N. McCaughtry, J. Martin, and B. Shen, “Racial and socioeconomic disparities in nutrition behaviors: targeted interventions needed,” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. V. Shrewsbury and J. Wardle, “Socioeconomic status and adiposity in childhood: a systematic review of cross-sectional studies, 1990–2005,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 275–284, 2008.
  35. R. A. Miech, S. K. Kumanyika, N. Stettler, B. G. Link, J. C. Phelan, and V. W. Chang, “Trends in the association of poverty with overweight among US adolescents, 1971–2004,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 295, no. 20, pp. 2385–2393, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. H. Thompson, A. C. Rafiroiu, and R. G. Sargent, “Examining gender, racial, and age differences in weight concern among third, fifth, eight, and elevent graders,” Eating Behaviors, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 307–323, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. L. Bernell, T. Mijanovich, and B. C. Weitzman, “Does the racial composition of the school environment influence children's body mass index?” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 40–46, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. McKenzie and M. Lounsbery, “School physical education: the pill not taken,” The American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 219–225, 2009.
  39. R. R. Pate, J. Stevens, L. S. Webber et al., “Age-related change in physical activity in adolescent girls,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 275–282, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. Widome, D. Neumark-Sztainer, P. J. Hannan, J. Haines, and M. Story, “Eating when there is not enough to eat: eating behaviors and perceptions of food among food-insecure youths,” The American Journal of Public Health, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 822–828, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. K. Wilson, “New perspectives on health disparities and obesity interventions in youth,” Journal of Pediatric Psychology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 231–244, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. Morland, S. Wing, and A. D. Roux, “The contextual effect of the local food environment on residents' diets: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study,” The American Journal of Public Health, vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 1761–1767, 2002. View at Scopus
  43. B. J. Lohman, S. Stewart, C. Gundersen, S. Garasky, and J. C. Eisenmann, “Adolescent overweight and obesity: links to food insecurity and individual, maternal, and family stressors,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 230–237, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. Bibbins-Domingo, P. Coxson, M. J. Pletcher, J. Lightwood, and L. Goldman, “Adolescent overweight and future adult coronary heart disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 23, pp. 2371–2379, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. L. Baker, L. W. Olsen, and T. I. A. Sørensen, “Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 23, pp. 2329–2337, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. W. H. Dietz and T. N. Robinson, “Overweight children and adolescents,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 20, pp. 2100–2109, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. S. R. Daniels, “Complications of obesity in children and adolescents,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 33, pp. 560–565, 2009.
  48. Y. Wang, M. A. Beydoun, L. Liang, B. Caballero, and S. K. Kumanyika, “Will all Americans become overweight or obese? Estimating the progression and cost of the US obesity epidemic,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2323–2330, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. E. A. Finkelstein, D. S. Brown, L. A. Wrage, B. T. Allaire, and T. J. Hoerger, “Individual and aggregate years-of-life-lost associated with overweight and obesity,” Obesity, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 333–339, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. LaFontaine, “The epidemic of obesity and overweight among youth: trends, consequences, and interventions,” The American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 30–36, 2008.
  51. A. V. Chobanian, G. L. Bakris, H. R. Black et al., “Seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure,” Hypertension, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1206–1252, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. G. B. Lurna and R. T. Spiotta, “Hypertension in children and adolescents,” The American Family Physician, vol. 73, pp. 1158–1168, 2006.
  53. B. Rosner, N. Cook, R. Portman, S. Daniels, and B. Falkner, “Blood pressure differences by ethnic group among United States children and adolescents,” Hypertension, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 502–508, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. T. M. Brady, B. Fivush, R. S. Parekh, and J. T. Flynn, “Racial differences among children with primary hypertension,” Pediatrics, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 931–937, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Report of the Surgeon General’s Conference on Children’s Mental Health: A National Action Agenda, Department of Health and Human Services, US Public Health Service, Washington, DC, USA, 2000.
  56. D. Knopf, M. H. Park, and T. P. Mulye, The Mental Health of Adolescents: A National Profile, National Adolescent Health Information Center, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 2008.
  57. D. Shaffer, P. Fisher, M. K. Dulcan et al., “The NIMH diagnostic interview schedule for children version 2.3 (DISC-2.3): description, acceptability, prevalence rates, and performance in the MECA study,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 865–877, 1996. View at Scopus
  58. E. J. Costello, S. Mustillo, A. Erkanli, G. Keeler, and A. Angold, “Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 837–844, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. R. E. Roberts, C. Clifford Attkisson, and A. Rosenblatt, “Prevalence of psychopathology among children and adolescents,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 155, no. 6, pp. 715–725, 1998. View at Scopus
  60. The American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, “Child and adolescent mental illness and drug abuse statistics-2009,” 2010, http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/resources_for_families/child_and_adolescent_mental_illness_statistics.
  61. R. C. Kessler, P. Berglund, O. Demler, R. Jin, K. R. Merikangas, and E. E. Walters, “Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 593–602, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. C.-C. Chow, K. Jaffee, and L. Snowden, “Racial/Ethnic disparities in the use of mental health services in poverty areas,” The American Journal of Public Health, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 792–797, 2003. View at Scopus
  63. E. Howell, Access To Children’s Mental Health Services Under Medicaid and SCHIP, Urban Institute, Washington, DC, USA, 2004.
  64. G. H. Brody, V. M. Murry, X. Ge et al., “Neighborhood disadvantage moderates associations of parenting and older sibling problem attitudes and behavior with conduct disorders in African American children,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 211–222, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. F. J. Zimmerman, “Social and economic determinants of disparities in professional help-seeking for child mental health problems: evidence from a national sample,” Health Services Research, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 1514–1533, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. Zwaanswijk, J. van der Ende, P. F. M. Verhaak, J. M. Bensing, and F. C. Verhulst, “Factors associated with adolescent mental health service need and utilization,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 692–700, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. D. K. Eaton, L. Kann, S. Kinchen, et al., “Youth risk behavior surveillance-United States, 2009,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 59, no. SS05, pp. 1–142, Surveillance Summaries, 2010.
  68. J. Muroff, G. A. Edelsohn, S. Joe, and B. C. Ford, “The role of race in diagnostic and disposition decision making in a pediatric psychiatric emergency service,” General Hospital Psychiatry, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 269–276, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. E. P. Slade, “Racial/ethnic disparities in parent perception of child need for mental health care following school disciplinary events,” Mental Health Services Research, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 75–92, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. J. Pumariega, K. Rogers, and E. Rothe, “Culturally competent systems of care for children's mental health: advances and challenges,” Community Mental Health Journal, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 539–555, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. C. M. Kodjo and P. Auinger, “Predictors for emotionally distressed adolescents to receive mental health care,” Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 368–373, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. L. K. Leslie, D. Plemmons, A. R. Monn, and L. A. Palinkas, “Investigating ADHD treatment trajectories: listening to families' stories about medication use,” Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 179–188, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Yeh, K. McCabe, R. L. Hough, D. Dupuis, and A. Hazen, “Racial/Ethnic differences in parental endorsement of barriers to mental health services for youth,” Mental Health Services Research, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 65–77, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. N. Natsuaki, X. Ge, G. H. Brody, R. L. Simons, F. X. Gibbons, and C. E. Cutrona, “African American children's depressive symptoms: the prospective effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events, and parenting,” The American Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 39, no. 1-2, pp. 163–176, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. S. H. Kataoka, L. Zhang, and K. B. Wells, “Unmet need for mental health care among U.S. children: variation by ethnicity and insurance status,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 159, no. 9, pp. 1548–1555, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. K. Bailey and D. L. Owens, “Overcoming challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in African Americans,” Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 97, no. 10, pp. 5–10, 2005. View at Scopus
  77. S. Pliszka and The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Work Group on Quality Issues, “Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 46, pp. 894–921, 2007.
  78. T. W. Miller, J. T. Nigg, and R. L. Miller, “Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in African American children: what can be concluded from the past ten years?” Clinical Psychology Review, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 77–86, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. B. Bloom and L. Tonthat, “Summary health statistics for U.S. children: National Health Interview Survey, 1997,” Vital and Health Statistics, no. 203, pp. 1–46, 2002. View at Scopus
  80. D. J. Safer and M. Malever, “Stimulant treatment in Maryland public schools,” Pediatrics, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 533–539, 2000. View at Scopus
  81. M. Olfson and M. J. Gameroff, “National trends in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 160, no. 6, pp. 1071–1077, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. K. P. Tercyak, C. Lerman, and J. Audrain, “Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms with levels of cigarette smoking in a community Sample of adolescents,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 799–805, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. C. Griggins, “Dosing dilemmas: are you rich and white or poor and black?” The American Journal of Bioethics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 55–57, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. G. Hall, C. H. Lemak, H. Steingraber, and S. Schaffer, “Expanding the definition of access: it isn't just about health insurance,” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 625–638, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. Kaiser Family Foundation, “Health insurance coverage in America, 2008. Section 2: health insurance coverage of children (Kaiser slides),” 2010, http://kff.org/kaiser-slides/.
  86. J. K. Iglehart, “Insuring all children: the new political imperative,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 1, pp. 70–76, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. G. Kenney, A. Cook, and L. Bubay, Progress Enrolling Children in Medicaid/CHIP: Who is Left and What are the Prospects for Covering More Children?Urban Institute, Washington, DC, USA, 2009.
  88. B. D. Sommers, “Why millions of children eligible for medicaid and SCHIP are uninsured: poor retention versus poor take-up,” Health Affairs, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. w560–w567, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. Lillie-Blanton, J. Paradise, M. Thomas, P. Jacobs, and B. DiJulio, Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Access To Care Among Children: How Does Medicaid Do in Closing the Gaps?Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park, Calif, USA, 2010, http://kff.org/.
  90. A. Y. Chen and R.-K. R. Chang, “Factors associated with prescription drug expenditures among children: an analysis of the medical expenditure panel survey,” Pediatrics, vol. 109, no. 5, pp. 728–732, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. L. Dubay, A. Cook, and B. Garrett, How Will Uninsured Children be Affected by Health Reform?Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park, Calif, USA, 2010, http://kff.org/.
  92. J. H. Price and M. Rickard, “SCHIP directors' perception of schools assisting students in obtaining public health insurance: school health policy,” Journal of School Health, vol. 79, no. 7, pp. 326–332, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. M. L. Rickard, C. Hendershot, J. Khubchandani, J. H. Price, and A. Thompson, “School nurses' perceptions and practices of assisting students in obtaining public health insurance,” Journal of School Health, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 312–320, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. M. L. Rickard, J. H. Price, S. K. Telljohann, J. A. Dake, and B. N. Fink, “School superintendents' perceptions of schools assisting students in obtaining public health insurance,” Journal of School Health, vol. 81, no. 12, pp. 756–763, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. G. King, J. McDougall, D. DeWit et al., “Pathways to children's academic performance and prosocial behaviour: roles of physical health status, environmental, family, and child factors,” International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 313–344, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. M. E. Msall, R. C. Avery, M. R. Tremont, J. C. Lima, M. L. Rogers, and D. P. Hogan, “Functional disability and school activity limitations in 41 300 school-age children: relationship to medical impairments,” Pediatrics, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 548–553, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. C. C. Breuner, M. S. Smith, and W. M. Womack, “Factors related to school absenteeism in adolescents with recurrent headache,” Headache, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 217–222, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. E. M. Z. Farmer, B. J. Burns, S. D. Phillips, A. Angold, and E. J. Costello, “Pathways into and through mental health services for children and adolescents,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 60–66, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. D. R. Pastore, L. Juszczak, M. M. Fisher, and S. B. Friedman, “School-based health center utilization: a survey of users and nonusers,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 152, no. 8, pp. 763–767, 1998. View at Scopus
  100. R. S. Baquiran, M. P. Webber, and D. K. Appel, “Comparing frequent and average users of elementary school-based health centers in the Bronx, New York City,” Journal of School Health, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 133–137, 2002. View at Scopus
  101. S. A. Ricketts and B. P. Guernsey, “School-based health centers and the decline in Black teen fertility during the 1990s in Denver, Colorado,” The American Journal of Public Health, vol. 96, no. 9, pp. 1588–1592, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. Silberberg and J. C. Cantor, “Making the case for school-based health: where do we stand?” Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 3–37, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. N. D. Brener, L. Wheeler, L. C. Wolfe, M. Vernon-Smiley, and L. Caldart-Olson, “Health services: results from the school health policies and programs study 2006,” Journal of School Health, vol. 77, no. 8, pp. 464–485, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. A. B. Balaji, N. D. Brener, and T. McManus, “Variation in school health policies and programs by demographic characteristics of US schools, 2006,” Journal of School Health, vol. 80, no. 12, pp. 599–613, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration Maternal, and Child Health Bureau, Child Health USA, 2008-2009, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Md, USA, 2009.
  106. H. C. Gift, S. T. Reisine, and D. C. Larach, “The social impact of dental problems and visits,” The American Journal of Public Health, vol. 82, no. 12, pp. 1663–1668, 1992. View at Scopus
  107. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Md, USA, 2000.
  108. A. P. Dasanayake, Y. Li, N. Chhun, J. M. Bronstein, and N. K. Childers, “Challenges faced by minority children in obtaining dental care,” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 779–788, 2007. View at Scopus
  109. M. Otto, “For Want of a Dentist,” The Washington Post, 2010, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/02/27/AR2007022702116.html.
  110. C. Lewis, W. Mouradian, R. Slayton, and A. Williams, “Dental insurance and its impact on preventive dental care visits for U.S. children,” Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 138, no. 3, pp. 369–380, 2007. View at Scopus
  111. T. Dietrich, C. Culler, R. I. Garcia, and M. M. Henshaw, “Racial and ethnic disparities in children's oral health The National Survey of Children's Health,” Journal of the American Dental Association, vol. 139, no. 11, pp. 1507–1517, 2008. View at Scopus
  112. A. J. Schulz, D. R. Williams, B. A. Israel, and L. B. Lempert, “Racial and spatial relations as fundamental determinants of health in Detroit,” Milbank Quarterly, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 677–707, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. G. M. Kenney, J. R. McFeeters, and J. Y. Yee, “Preventive dental care and unmet dental needs among low-income children,” The American Journal of Public Health, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 1360–1366, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. M. H. Chin, A. E. Walters, S. C. Cook, and E. S. Huang, “Interventions to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health care,” Medical Care Research and Review, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 7–28, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. T. L. Fisher, D. L. Burnet, E. S. Huang, M. H. Chin, and K. A. Cagney, “Cultural leverageinterventions using culture to narrow racial disparities in health care,” Medical Care Research and Review, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 243–282, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. R. DeVol and A. Bedroussian, An Unhealthy America: The Economic Burden of Chronic Disease, Milken Institute, Santa Monica, Calif, USA, 2007.