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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 789689, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/789689
Research Article

Biochemical Characterization, Action on Macrophages, and Superoxide Anion Production of Four Basic Phospholipases A2 from Panamanian Bothrops asper Snake Venom

1Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, FCFRP-USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
2Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad Autónoma de Chiriquí, UNACHI, Panama
3Departamento de Laboratorio Clínico, Complejo Hospitalario Metropolitano, Caja de Seguro Social, CHM-CSS, Panama
4Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, FCFRP-USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
5Centro de Estudos de Biomoléculas Aplicadas a Saúde-CEBio, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ Rondônia e Núcleo de Saúde, Universidade Federal de Rondônia, UNIR, Porto Velho, RO, Brazil

Received 10 July 2012; Accepted 13 September 2012

Academic Editor: Luis A. Ponce Soto

Copyright © 2013 Aristides Quintero Rueda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) is the most important venomous snake in Central America, being responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents. Four basic PLA2s (pMTX-I to -IV) were purified from crude venom by a single-step chromatography using a CM-Sepharose ion-exchange column (1.5 × 15 cm). Analysis of the N-terminal sequence demonstrated that pMTX-I and III belong to the catalytically active Asp49 phospholipase A2 subclass, whereas pMTX-II and IV belong to the enzymatically inactive Lys49 PLA2s-like subclass. The PLA2s isolated from Panama Bothrops asper venom (pMTX-I, II, III, and IV) are able to induce myotoxic activity, inflammatory reaction mainly leukocyte migration to the muscle, and induce J774A.1 macrophages activation to start phagocytic activity and superoxide production.