About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 794984, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/794984
Research Article

Reduction of Orbital Inflammation following Decompression for Thyroid-Related Orbitopathy

1Division of Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, UCSD Department of Ophthalmology, CA, USA
2Thyroid Eye Center, UCSD Department of Ophthalmology, La Jolla, CA, USA
3Division of Oculofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, The Permanente Medical Group, Sacramento, CA, USA
4UCSD Department of Ophthalmology, La Jolla, CA, USA
5UCSD Department of Neurosciences, La Jolla, CA, USA
6Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology, UCSD Department of Ophthalmology, CA, USA

Received 3 April 2013; Accepted 30 May 2013

Academic Editor: Anton M. Jetten

Copyright © 2013 Sang-Rog Oh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Forbes, C. A. Gorman, and M. D. Brennan, “Ophthalmopathy of Graves' disease: computerized volume measurements of the orbital fat and muscle,” American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 651–656, 1986. View at Scopus
  2. B. S. Prabhakar, R. S. Bahn, and T. J. Smith, “Current perspective on the pathogenesis of Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 802–835, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. S. Bahn, “Graves' ophthalmopathy,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 362, no. 8, pp. 726–774, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. Rapoport and S. M. McLachlan, “The thyrotropin receptor in Graves' disease,” Thyroid, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 911–922, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. H. Khoo, P. H. Eng, S. C. Ho et al., “Graves' ophthalmopathy in the absence of elevated free thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels: prevalence, natural history, and thyrotropin receptor antibody levels,” Thyroid, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1093–1100, 2000. View at Scopus
  6. T. F. Davies, C. S. Teng, S. M. McLachlan, B. R. Smith, and R. Hall, “Thyrotropin receptors in adipose tissue, retro-orbital tissue and lymphocytes,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 303–310, 1978. View at Scopus
  7. L. Bartalena, A. Pinchera, and C. Marcocci, “Management of graves' ophthalmopathy: reality and perspectives,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 168–199, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. A. Gorman, J. A. Garrity, V. Fatourechi et al., “A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of orbital radiotherapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy,” Ophthalmology, vol. 108, no. 9, pp. 1523–1534, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Salvi, G. Vannucchi, I. Campi et al., “Treatment of graves' disease and associated opthalmopathy with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab: an open study,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 156, no. 1, pp. 33–40, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. El Fassi, C. H. Nielsen, H. C. Hasselbalch, and L. Hegedüs, “The rationale for B lymphocyte depletion in Graves' disease: monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody therapy as a novel treatment option,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 154, no. 5, pp. 623–632, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. I. Zoumalan, K. P. Cockerham, R. E. Turbin et al., “Efficacy of corticosteroids and external beam radiation in the management of moderate to severe thyroid eye disease,” Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 205–214, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Bartalena, L. Baldeschi, A. J. Dickinson et al., “Consensus statement of the European group on Graves' orbitopathy (EUGOGO) on management of Graves' orbitopathy,” Thyroid, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 333–346, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. R. Thaller and H. K. Kawamoto, “Surgical correction of exophthalmos secondary to Graves' disease,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 411–418, 1990. View at Scopus
  14. H. B. Burch and L. Wartofsky, “Graves' ophthalmopathy: current concepts regarding pathogenesis and management,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 747–793, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. S. Bahn, G. B. Bartley, and C. A. Gorman, “Emergency treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy,” Bailliere's Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 95–105, 1992. View at Scopus
  16. J. M. Neigel, J. Rootman, R. I. Belkin et al., “Dysthyroid optic neuropathy. The crowded orbital apex syndrome,” Ophthalmology, vol. 95, no. 11, pp. 1515–1521, 1988. View at Scopus
  17. S. S. Hayreh, K. M. Joos, P. A. Podhajsky, and C. R. Long, “Systemic diseases associated with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 118, no. 6, pp. 766–780, 1994. View at Scopus
  18. M. Kazim, R. A. Goldberg, and T. J. Smith, “Insight to the pathogenesis of thyrois associated ophthalmopathy,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 120, pp. 380–386, 2002.
  19. B. S. Korn, S.-W. Seo, L. Levi, D. B. Granet, and D. O. Kikkawa, “Optic neuropathy associated with botulinum A toxin in thyroid-related orbitopathy,” Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 109–114, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. M. Jacobson, “Dysthyroid orbitopathy,” Seminars in Neurology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 43–54, 2000. View at Scopus
  21. C. H. Choe, R. I. Cho, and V. M. Elner, “Comparison of lateral and medial orbital decompression for the treatment of compressive optic neuropathy in thyroid eye disease,” Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 4–11, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Mensah, C. Vignal-Clermont, M. Chadi et al., “Dysthyroid optic neuropathy: atypical initial presentation and persistent visual loss,” Orbit, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 354–362, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. A. Chu, N. R. Miller, M. P. Grant, S. Merbs, R. P. Tufano, and A. P. Lane, “Surgical treatment of dysthyroid orbitopathy,” Otolaryngology, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 39–45, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. A. Pribitkin, J. McJunkin, B. Kung, J. R. Carrasco, J. R. Bilyk, and P. J. Savino, “Technique selection for orbital decompression: combined endoscopic and transconjunctival versus combined endoscopic and transantral approach,” Ear, Nose and Throat Journal, vol. 88, no. 5, article E12, 2009. View at Scopus
  25. E. A. Chu, N. R. Miller, and A. P. Lane, “Selective endoscopic decompression of the orbital apex for dysthyroid optic neuropathy,” Laryngoscope, vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 1236–1240, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. R. Dubin, A. Tabaee, J. T. Scruggs, M. Kazim, and L. G. Close, “Image-guided endoscopic orbital decompression for graves' orbitopathy,” Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 177–185, 2008. View at Scopus
  27. D. McKeag, C. Lane, J. H. Lazarus et al., “Clinical features of dysthyroid optic neuropathy: a European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO) survey,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 455–458, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. J. Ben Simon, H. Syed, R. Douglas, R. Schwartz, R. A. Goldberg, and J. D. McCann, “Clinical manifestations and treatment outcome of optic neuropathy in thyroid-related orbitopathy,” Ophthalmic Surgery Lasers and Imaging, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 284–290, 2006. View at Scopus
  29. S. L. Liao, T. C. Chang, and L. L.-K. Lin, “Transcaruncular orbital decompression: an alternate procedure for graves ophthalmopathy with compressive optic neuropathy,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 141, no. 5, pp. 810–818, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. D. Schaefer, P. Soliemanzadeh, D. A. D. Rocca et al., “Endoscopic and transconjunctival orbital decompression for thyroid-related orbital apex compression,” Laryngoscope, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 508–513, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. O. Michel, N. Oberlander, A. Neugebauer, J. Fricke, and W. Russmann, “Preliminary report: long-term results of transnasal orbital decompression in malignant Graves' ophthalmopathy,” Strabismus, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 113–118, 2000. View at Scopus
  32. A. Neugebauer, K. Nishino, P. Neugebauer, W. Konen, and O. Michel, “Effects of bilateral orbital decompression by an endoscopic endonasal approach in dysthyroid orbitopathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 58–62, 1996. View at Scopus
  33. D. A. Girod, J. C. Orcutt, and C. W. Cummings, “Orbital decompression for preservation of vision in Graves' ophthalmopathy,” Archives of Otolaryngology, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 229–233, 1993. View at Scopus
  34. E. S. Hallin, S. E. Feldon, and J. Luttrell, “Graves' ophthalmopathy: III. Effect of transantral orbital decompression on optic neuropathy,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 72, no. 9, pp. 683–687, 1988. View at Scopus
  35. I. M. M. J. Wakelkamp, L. Baldeschi, P. Saeed, M. P. Mourits, M. F. Prummel, and W. M. Wiersinga, “Surgical or medical decompression as a first-line treatment of optic neuropathy in Graves' ophthalmopathy? A randomized controlled trial,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 323–328, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. Bartelena, C. Marcocci, F. Bogazzi et al., “Orbital decompression for severe Graves' ophthalmopathy,” Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 323–327, 1989. View at Scopus
  37. J. A. Garrity, V. Fatourechi, E. J. Bergstralh et al., “Results of transantral orbital decompression in 428 patients with severe Graves' ophthalmopathy,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 533–547, 1993. View at Scopus
  38. C. R. Leone Jr., K. L. Piest, and R. J. Newman, “Medial and lateral wall decompression for thyroid ophthalmopathy,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 160–166, 1989. View at Scopus
  39. R. A. Goldberg, A. J. Kim, and K. M. Kerivan, “The lacrimal keyhole, orbital door jamb, and basin of the inferior orbital fissure: three areas of deep bone in the lateral orbit,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 116, no. 12, pp. 1618–1624, 1998. View at Scopus
  40. I. M. M. J. Wakelkamp, L. Baldeschi, P. Saeed, M. P. Mourits, M. F. Prummel, and W. M. Wiersinga, “Surgical or medical decompression as a first-line treatment of optic neuropathy in Graves' ophthalmopathy? A randomized controlled trial,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 323–328, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. B. S. Korn, D. O. Kikkawa, and K. C. Hicok, “Identification and characterization of adult stem cells from human orbital adipose tissue,” Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. R. Lubin, D. M. Albert, and M. Weinstein, “Sixty-five years of sympathetic ophthalmia. A clinicopathological review of 105 cases (1913–1978),” Ophthalmology, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 109–121, 1980. View at Scopus
  43. D. O. Kikkawa, K. Pornpanich, R. C. Cruz Jr., L. Levi, and D. B. Granet, “Graded orbital decompression based on severity of proptosis,” Ophthalmology, vol. 109, no. 7, pp. 1219–1224, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. E. L. Chang, C. R. Bernardino, and P. A. D. Rubin, “Transcaruncular orbital decompression for management of compressive optic neuropathy in thyroid-related orbitopathy,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 739–747, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. M. Graham, C. L. Brown, K. D. Carter, A. Song, and J. A. Nerad, “Medial and lateral orbital wall surgery for balanced decompression in thyroid eye disease,” Laryngoscope, vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 1206–1209, 2003. View at Scopus
  46. F. F. Rundle and C. S. Wilson, “Development and course of exophthalmos and ophthalmoplegia in Graves' disease with special reference to the effect of thyroidectomy,” Clinical Science, vol. 5, no. 3-4, pp. 177–194, 1945.
  47. L. Baldeschi, I. M. M. J. Wakelkamp, R. Lindeboom, M. F. Prummel, and W. M. Wiersinga, “Early versus late orbital decompression in Graves' orbitopathy: a retrospective study in 125 patients,” Ophthalmology, vol. 113, no. 5, pp. 874–878, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus