- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 809234, 8 pages
Effects of Water Extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense on Blood Pressure, Fasting Glucose, and Lipid Profiles of Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome
1Department of Family and Community Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
2School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
3Center for Education and Research on Geriatrics and Gerontology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
4Department of Health Food, Chung Chou University of Science and Technology, Changhua 51003, Taiwan
5School of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
6Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40201, Taiwan
Received 16 September 2013; Accepted 29 October 2013
Academic Editor: Esteban Martinez
Copyright © 2013 Chi-Hua Yen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. I. Cleeman, “Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III),” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 19, pp. 2486–2497, 2001.
- E. Ferrannini, S. M. Haffner, B. D. Mitchell, and M. P. Stern, “Hyperinsulinaemia: the key feature of cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome,” Diabetologia, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 416–422, 1991.
- E. S. Ford and W. H. Giles, “A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using two proposed definitions,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 575–581, 2003.
- Y.-W. Park, S. Zhu, L. Palaniappan, S. Heshka, M. R. Carnethon, and S. B. Heymsfield, “The metabolic syndrome: prevalence and associated risk factor findings in the US population from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 163, no. 4, pp. 427–436, 2003.
- G. D. Kolovou, K. K. Anagnostopoulou, K. D. Salpea, and D. P. Mikhailidis, “The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in various populations,” The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 333, no. 6, pp. 362–371, 2007.
- C.-J. Yeh, H.-Y. Chang, and W.-H. Pan, “Time trend of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and related dietary pattern in Taiwan: from NAHSIT 1993-1996 to NAHSIT 2005-2008,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 292–300, 2011.
- A. Ceriello, A. Quatraro, and D. Giugliano, “Diabetes mellitus and hypertension: the possible role of hyperglycaemia through oxidative stress,” Diabetologia, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 265–266, 1993.
- D. Giugliano, A. Ceriello, and G. Paolisso, “Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease: which role for oxidative stress?” Metabolism, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 363–368, 1995.
- I. C. West, “Radicals and oxidative stress in diabetes,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 171–180, 2000.
- C. Antoniades, D. Tousoulis, C. Tentolouris, P. Toutouzas, and C. Stefanadis, “Oxidative stress, antioxidant vitamins, and atherosclerosis: from basic research to clinical practice,” Herz, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 628–638, 2003.
- R. Stocker and J. F. Keaney Jr., “Role of oxidative modifications in atherosclerosis,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 1381–1478, 2004.
- S. Penckofer, D. Schwertz, and K. Florczak, “Oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: the role of antioxidants and pro-oxidants,” The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 68–85, 2002.
- D. Giugliano, “Dietary antioxidants for cardiovascular prevention,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 38–44, 2000.
- K.-F. Huang, Y.-W. Chen, C.-T. Chang, and S.-T. Chou, “Studies on the inhibitory effect of Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther extracts on mushroom tyrosinase,” Food Chemistry, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 583–587, 2005.
- Y.-C. Chung, S.-J. Chen, C.-K. Hsu, C.-T. Chang, and S.-T. Chou, “Studies on the antioxidative activity of Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther,” Food Chemistry, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 419–424, 2005.
- S.-J. Chen, C.-T. Chang, Y.-C. Chung, and S.-T. Chou, “Studies on the inhibitory effect of Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther extracts on the angiotensin converting enzyme,” Food Chemistry, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 1032–1036, 2007.
- Y.-C. Chung, S.-J. Chen, H.-Y. Pengspi-Sup, and S.-T. Chou, “Anti hypertensive and antioxidant effects of the Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther extract in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 89, no. 15, pp. 2678–2686, 2009.
- S.-J. Chen, J.-G. Chung, Y.-C. Chung, and S.-T. Chou, “In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the stem extracts from Graptopetalum paraguayense,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 369–383, 2008.
- P.-D. Duh, S.-L. Lin, and S.-C. Wu, “Hepatoprotection of Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther on CCl 4-induced liver damage and inflammation,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 379–385, 2011.
- L. J. Su, C. C. Chang, C. H. Yang, et al., “Graptopetalum paraguayense ameliorates chemical-induces rat hepatic fibrosis in vivo and inactivates stellate cells and kupffer cells in vitro,” PLoS ONE, no. 8, Article ID e53988, 2013.
- T.-K. Kao, Y.-C. Ou, S.-L. Raung et al., “Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther leaf extracts protect against brain injury in ischemic rats,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 495–516, 2010.
- Y. L. Lin, H. Y. Peng, H. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lin, and S. T. Chou, “Effects of Graptopetalum paraguayense consumption on serum lipid profiles and antioxidative status in hypercholesteremic subjects,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 1230–1235, 2011.
- K. G. M. M. Alberti and P. Zimmet, “The metabolic syndrome—a new worldwide definition,” The Lancet, vol. 366, no. 9491, pp. 1059–1062, 2005.
- S. M. Grundy, J. I. Cleeman, S. R. Daniels et al., “Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 17, pp. 2735–2752, 2005.
- Y.-C. Chung, S.-T. Chou, J.-K. Jhan, J.-W. Liao, and S.-J. Chen, “In vitro and in vivo safety of aqueous extracts of Graptopetalum paraguayense E. Walther,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 91–97, 2012.
- D. E. Paglia and W. N. Valentine, “Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase,” The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 158–169, 1967.
- S. Marklund and G. Marklund, “Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 469–474, 1974.
- H. Aebi, “ Catalase in vitro,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 105, no. C, pp. 121–126, 1984.
- N. Karaouzene, H. Merzouk, M. Aribi et al., “Effects of the association of aging and obesity on lipids, lipoproteins and oxidative stress biomarkers: a comparison of older with young men,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 792–799, 2011.
- S. A. B. E. Van Acker, D.-J. Van Den Berg, M. N. J. L. Tromp et al., “Structural aspects of antioxidant activity of flavonoids,” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 331–342, 1996.
- W. Zheng and S. Y. Wang, “Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 5165–5170, 2001.
- J. L. Evans, I. D. Goldfine, B. A. Maddux, and G. M. Grodsky, “Are oxidative stress—activated signaling pathways mediators of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction?” Diabetes, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2003.
- J. I. Yang, M. H. Pan, M. L. Tsai, and W. C. Chen, “Effects of Shi-lan (Graptopetalum paraguayens) extracts on antioxidative performance and serum glucose level in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Journal of National Kaohsiung Marine University, vol. 18, pp. 119–132, 2003 (Chinese).
- V. Poitout and R. P. Robertson, “Minireview: secondary β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes—a convergence of glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity,” Endocrinology, vol. 143, no. 2, pp. 339–342, 2002.
- M.-C. Blatter, R. W. James, S. Messner, F. Barja, and D. Pometta, “Identification of a distinct human high-density lipoprotein subspecies defined by a lipoprotein-associated protein, K-45. Identity of K-45 with paraoxonase,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 211, no. 3, pp. 871–879, 1993.
- M. N. Rao, Q.-H. Liu, P. Marmillot, L. B. Seeff, D. B. Strader, and M. R. Lakshman, “High-density lipoproteins from human alcoholics exhibit impaired reverse cholesterol transport function,” Metabolism, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1406–1410, 2000.
- F. Osaki, Y. Ikeda, T. Suehiro et al., “Roles of Sp1 and protein kinase C in regulation of human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene transcription in HepG2 cells,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 176, no. 2, pp. 279–287, 2004.
- C.-C. Cheng, L.-C. Wu, J.-M. Lai, C.-T. Chen, C.-M. Hsueh, and S.-L. Hsu, “Ethanol extract of Graptopetalum paraguayense upregulates paraoxonase 1 gene expression via an AKT/NF-κB-dependent pathway,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 357–372, 2012.
- B. Mackness, P. Durrington, A. Povey et al., “Paraoxonase and susceptibility to organophosphorus poisoning in farmers dipping sheep,” Pharmacogenetics, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 81–88, 2003.
- A. Papathanasopoulos and M. Camilleri, “Dietary fiber supplements: effects in obesity and metabolic syndrome and relationship to gastrointestinal functions,” Gastroenterology, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 65–e2, 2010.
- J. M. Assini, E. E. Mulvihill, and M. W. Huff, “Citrus flavonoids and lipid metabolism,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 34–40, 2013.