Table 1: Genes upregulated during HBV-induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Genes up-regulated during HCC
Gene nameGeneFunctionActivation byReference

B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 2
BCL2Apoptosis-related genesHBV pre-S2 increased Bcl-2 expression[86]
Baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5 (survivin)BIRC5Cell cycle, regulation, apoptosis inhibitorHBV and HCV[87]
Cyclin D1CCND1Regulators of CDK kinases, interact with tumor suppressor geneHBV[88]
CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulatorCFLARApoptosis-related genesHBV-induced HCC[89]
Type II keratin Kb8KRT8 Cytoskeletal organization, cirrhosisHBV[89]
Ribosomal protein S5RPS5 Protein synthesisHBV[89]
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2IGFBP2 Cell membrane receptor related genesHBV[89]
Matrix metalloproteinase 9MMP9 Metastasis-related genesHBV[89]
ATP synthase F 1ATP5F1 TransportionHBV[89]
Frizzled-7 receptorFZD7Activates the Wnt/beta-catenin pathwayHBV[90]
Insulin-like growth factor2IGF2Stimulatory role, gestationHBV [91]
Maternally-transmitted human geneH19 Cancer causingHBV[91]
Tumor growth factor beta 1TGFB1Tumor suppressorHBV[92]
Induced myeloid leukemia cell differentiation proteinMcl-1Controlling life and death decisions in response to rapidly changing environmental cues and immune responseHBV pre-S2 protein[86]
Transforming growth factor alphaTGFAMorphogenesisHBV[93]
Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1LEF1Regulatory proteins and potential drug targetChronic HBV[94]
Nuclear factor kappa BNFKB1Inflammation, immunity, differentiation, tumorigenesis, and apoptosisHBV[95]
Insulin receptor substrate 1IRS1HBV[96]
Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1PIN1Cell proliferation, cell survival, immune responsesHBV[97]
Hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR)METProtooncogene, angiogenesis, gastrulation,HBV[98]
Protein tyrosine kinase 2PTK2regulation of the tumor suppressor p53HBV and HCV[99]
Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1RAC1Cell growth, cytoskeletal, activation of protein kinasesHBV[91]
Ras homolog gene family, member ARHOARegulation and timing of cell division.HBV[91]
Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7SMAD7Overexpression causes cancerHBV[100]
Immunoglobulin transcription factor 2 TCF4Immune responceHBV[101]
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)TNFSF10Activates NFkappaBHBV[102]
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis proteinXIAPInhibits caspase 3, 7, and 9HBV[103]
Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinaseSRCRegulation of embryonic development and cell growth.HBV[47]
Store-operated Ca(2+) entrySOCEPreventing the overload of the cell with excessive Ca(2+) ionsHBx[104]
Metastasis associated 1MTAContributes to angiogenesisHBV[68]
BAXUpregulated by HBxApoptotic activityBcl-2–associated X protein[105]