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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 820786, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/820786
Research Article

Antioxidant and Renoprotective Effects of Spirogyra neglecta (Hassall) Kützing Extract in Experimental Type 2 Diabetic Rats

1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
2Division of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Phayao, Phayao 56000, Thailand
3School of Biology, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand
4Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
5Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290, Thailand

Received 20 February 2013; Revised 24 April 2013; Accepted 29 April 2013

Academic Editor: Gjumrakch Aliev

Copyright © 2013 Atcharaporn Ontawong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Spirogyra neglecta extract (SNE) has shown antihyperglycemia and antihyperlipidemia in type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) rats. This study investigated the antioxidant and renoprotective effects of SNE in T2DM rats induced by high-fat diet with low-single dose streptozotocin. T2DM rats were fed daily with SNE (0.25, 0.5, and 1 g/kg BW) for 12 weeks. Renal morphology, malondialdehyde levels, qPCR, and western blotting were analyzed. Renal cortical slices were used to determine renal transport of organic anions, which are estrone sulfate and para-aminohippurate, mediated through organic anion transporter 3-Oat3. Insulin and PKC were known to activate Oat3 function while it was inhibited by PKC . Compared to T2DM, plasma glucose, triglyceride, insulin resistance, renal morphology, and malondialdehyde levels were significantly improved by SNE supplementation. Reduced glutathione peroxidase and nuclear factor B expressions were related to antioxidant effect of SNE. Oat3 mRNA and protein were not different among groups, but insulin-stimulated rOat3 followed by anion uptakes was abolished in T2DM. This was restored in the slices from SNE treatment. The mechanism of SNE-improved Oat3 was associated with PKC and PKC expressions and activities. These findings indicate that SNE has beneficial effects on renal transport through antioxidant enzymes and PKCs in T2DM rats.