Figure 9: Effects of Spirogyra neglecta extract on expression of PKC and p-PKC in renal cortical tissues. (a) Western blotting of whole cell lysate, membrane, and cytosolic fractions from rat kidneys was separated and detected using (a) anti-PKC and (b) anti-p-PKC antibodies from ND, ND + SNE1.0, DM, DM + SNE1.0, and DM + vitamin C rat kidney cortex. Anti-Na+-K+-ATPase and anti-β-actin antibodies were used as a membrane marker and loading control, respectively. Densitometry was analyzed and expressed as mean ± S.E.M. (). indicates the significant differences from normal (ND) and # indicates the significant differences from T2DM (DM) rats. A representative blot of PKC/β-actin or p-PKC/β-actin ratios is shown in (top (a, b)) and quantification of relative protein expression in each fraction is presented in (bottom (a, b)).