Table 1: Mechanism of n-3 PUFA action.

TargetMechanism of actionReferences

Membrane PIPsSuppress PI3K/AKT/BAD survival pathway[17, 40]
SDC-1Suppress PI3K/AKT/BAD and AKT/NFκB survival pathway[49]
UnknownSuppress AKT/NFκB or PI3K/AKT/p38 MAPK pathway[50, 51]
GPR40 Mediate insulin secretion, cell proliferation[7577]
GPR120Anti-inflammation[3, 80]
TLRsSuppress the production of proinflammatory mediators[88, 89]
PPARgInduce cell apoptosis[90]
Nrf2Suppress inflammation, reduce oxidative stress[106, 109, 110]
Calcium signalingInhibit cell proliferation[114]
COXsPromote inflammation[52]
LOXsPromote inflammation[53]
E-resolvinsResolve inflammation[62]
D-resolvinsResolve inflammation[62]