Table 3: Tail immersion method: effects of methanolic extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis stem barks and morphine on pain induced tail immersion method.

GroupDose (mg/kg)Reaction time in (sec)
0 min15 min30 min60 min90 min

Control3.02 ± 0.122.98 ± 0.172.85 ± 0.103.08 ± 0.143.06 ± 0.11
Standard5 (i.p)3.06 ± 0.14 a*5.23 ± 0.04 a@7.58 ± 0.12 a@9.72 ± 0.12 a@9.15 ± 0.13 a@
MENA250250 (p.o)3.04 ± 0.05 a*b*3.74 ± 0.13 a@b@4.26 ± 0.11 a@b@5.34 ± 0.18 a@b@5.67 ± 0.20 a@b@
MENA500500 (p.o)2.98 ± 0.21 a*b*cns3.89 ± 0.05 a@b@c*5.44 ± 0.10 a@b@c@6.71 ± 0.15 a@b@c@7.52 ± 0.16 a@b@c@

Data are expressed as Mean ± SEM, animals in each group. One-way ANOVA was carried out using Turkey’s multiple comparison tests. Comparisons were made between:
a: Control versus Standard, MENA250, and MENA500.
b: Standard versus MENA250 and MENA500.
c: MENA250 versus MENA500.
Symbols represent statistical significance: * , # , @ , ns: nonsignificant.