Table 4: Carrageenan-induced paw edema (acute model): effects of methanolic extracts of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis stem bark and diclofenac on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

GroupDose (mg/kg)Paw volume increase (in mL)
0 hr1 hr2 hr3 hr4 hr5 hr

Control0.63 ± 0.010.86 ± 0.031.12 ± 0.011.23 ± 0.0051.28 ± 0.021.20 ± 0.12
Standard100 (p.o)0.61 ± 0.12 a*0.72 ± 0.06 a*0.80 ± 0.01 a#0.84 ± 0.04 a@0.78 ± 0.01 a@0.73 ± 0.01 a@
MENA250250 (p.o)0.62 ± 0.01 a*b*0.82 ± 0.10 a*b*0.94 ± 0.03 a*b*1.01 ± 0.01 a@b@0.97 ± 0.06 a@b#0.92 ± 0.02 a*b*
MENA500500 (p.o)0.61 ± 0.02 a*b*cns0.78 ± 0.01 a*b*c*0.90 ± .12 a*b*c*0.95 ± 0.01 a@b#c*0.89 ± 0.05 a@b*c*0.82 ± 0.01 a#b*c*

Data are expressed as Mean ± SEM, animals in each group. One-way ANOVA was carried out using Turkey’s multiple comparison tests. Comparisons were made between:
a: Control versus Standard, MENA250, and MENA500.
b: Standard versus MENA250 and MENA500.
c: MENA250 versus MENA500.
Symbols represent statistical significance: * , # , @ .