About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 835850, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/835850
Clinical Study

Complex Assessment of the Incidence and Risk Factors of Delirium in a Large Cohort of Cardiac Surgery Patients: A Single-Center 6-Year Experience

1Department of Cardiac Surgery, Upper Silesia Medical Center, Medical University of Silesia, 47 Ziołowa Street, 40-635 Katowice, Poland
2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Upper Silesia Medical Center, 40-635 Katowice, Poland
31st Department of Cardiology, Upper Silesia Medical Center, Medical University of Silesia, 40-635 Katowice, Poland
4Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Upper Silesia Medical Center, Medical University of Silesia, 40-635 Katowice, Poland
5Department of Biostatistics, Chair of Public Health, Medical University of Silesia, 41-902 Bytom, Poland

Received 10 April 2013; Revised 5 September 2013; Accepted 23 September 2013

Academic Editor: Matthias Thielmann

Copyright © 2013 Łukasz J. Krzych et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Lamy, P. J. Devereaux, D. Prabhakaran et al., “Off-pump or on-pump coronary-artery bypass grafting at 30 days,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 16, pp. 1489–1497, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Bucerius, J. F. Gummert, M. A. Borger et al., “Stroke after cardiac surgery: a risk factor analysis of 16,184 consecutive adult patients,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 472–478, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. K. A. Eagle, R. A. Guyton, R. Davidoff et al., “ACC/AHA Guidelines for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: a Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Revise the 1991 Guidelines for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery). American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 1262–1347, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. J. Giltay, R. V. H. P. Huijskes, K. H. Kho, B. A. Blansjaar, and P. M. J. Rosseel, “Psychotic symptoms in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and heart valve operation,” European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 140–147, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Bucerius, J. F. Gummert, M. A. Borger et al., “Predictors of delirium after cardiac surgery delirium: effect of beating-heart (off-pump) surgery,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 57–64, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. F. Gottesman, M. A. Grega, M. M. Bailey et al., “Delirium after coronary artery bypass graft surgery and late mortality,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 338–344, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. I. Norkiene, D. Ringaitiene, I. Misiuriene et al., “Incidence and precipitating factors of delirium after coronary artery bypass grafting,” Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 180–185, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. A. Hudetz, K. M. Patterson, Z. Iqbal et al., “Ketamine attenuates delirium after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass,” Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 651–657, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Loponen, M. Luther, J.-O. Wistbacka et al., “Postoperative delirium and health related quality of life after coronary artery bypass grafting,” Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 337–344, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. McManus, R. Pathansali, H. Hassan et al., “The course of delirium in acute stroke,” Age and Ageing, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 385–389, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. O. Özyurtkan, B. Yildizeli, K. Kuşçu et al., “Postoperative psychiatric disorders in general thoracic surgery: incidence, risk factors and outcomes,” European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1152–1157, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. S. Krähenbühl, F. F. Immer, M. Stalder, L. Englberger, F. S. Eckstein, and T. P. Carrel, “Temporary neurological dysfunction after surgery of the thoracic aorta: a predictor of poor outcome and impaired quality of life,” European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1025–1029, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. F. Rosen, G. P. Clagett, R. J. Valentine, M. R. Jackson, J. G. Modrall, and K. E. McIntyre, “Transient advanced mental impairment: an underappreciated morbidity after aortic surgery,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 376–381, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. W. Breitbart, J. Franklin, J. Levenson, D. R. Martini, and P. Wang, “Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with delirium,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 156, no. 5, pp. 1–20, 1999. View at Scopus
  15. L. Simon, N. Jewell, and J. Brokel, “Management of acute delirium in hospitalized elderly: a process improvement project,” Geriatric Nursing, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 150–154, 1997. View at Scopus
  16. J. H. Silverstein, M. Timberger, D. L. Reich, and S. Uysal, “Central nervous system dysfunction after noncardiac surgery and anesthesia in the elderly,” Anesthesiology, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 622–628, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Reichenberg, K. L. Dahlman, S. Mosovich, and J. H. Silverstein, “Neuropsychiatric consequences of coronary artery bypass grafting and noncardiovascular surgery,” Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 85–91, 2007. View at Scopus
  18. H. Böhner, T. C. Hummel, U. Habel et al., “Predicting delirium after vascular surgery: a model based on pre- and intraoperative data,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 238, no. 1, pp. 149–156, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. L. Rudolph, S. K. Inouye, R. N. Jones et al., “Delirium: an independent predictor of functional decline after cardiac surgery,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 643–649, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. C. van der Mast, W. W. Van Den Broek, D. Fekkes, L. Pepplinkhuizen, and J. D. F. Habbema, “Incidence of and preoperative predictors for delirium after cardiac surgery,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 479–483, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. S. Burkhart, S. Dell-Kuster, M. Gamberini et al., “Modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass,” Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 555–559, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. G. Niewinski and A. Kanski, “Mortality scoring in ITU,” Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy, vol. 44, pp. 47–50, 2012.
  23. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 2000.
  24. J. V. Laurila, K. H. Pitkala, T. E. Strandberg, and R. S. Tilvis, “The impact of different diagnostic criteria on prevalence rates for delirium,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 156–162, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. “European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation,” 2012, http://www.euroscore.org/what_is_euroscore.htm.
  26. R. A. Manji, H. P. Grocott, J. Leake et al., “Seizures following cardiac surgery: the impact of tranexamic acid and other risk factors,” Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 6–13, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. J. O'Donnell, X. Denis, L. Liu et al., “Risk factors for ischaemic and intracerebral haemorrhagic stroke in 22 countries (the INTERSTROKE study): a case-control study,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9735, pp. 112–123, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. W. Roach, M. Kanchuger, C. M. Mangano, et al., “Adverse cerebral outcomes after coronary bypass surgery. Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group and the Ischemia Research and Education Foundation Investigators,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 335, pp. 1857–1863, 1996.
  29. Ł. J. Krzych, M. Krejca, J. Bis et al., “Perioperative blood pressure variability in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting—Its magnitude and determinants,” Blood Pressure Monitoring, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 129–133, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. J. Mitchell, A. F. Merry, C. Frampton et al., “Cerebral protection by lidocaine during cardiac operations: a follow-up study,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 820–825, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. K. Bhudia, D. M. Cosgrove, R. I. Naugle et al., “Magnesium as a neuroprotectant in cardiac surgery: a randomized clinical trial,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 131, no. 4, pp. 853–861, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Kanbak, F. Saricaoglu, A. Avci, T. Ocal, Z. Koray, and U. Aypar, “Propofol offers no advantage over isoflurane anesthesia for cerebral protection during cardiopulmonary bypass: a preliminary study of S-100β protein levels,” Canadian Journal of Anesthesia, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 712–717, 2004. View at Scopus
  33. J. D. van der Linden, L. Hadjinikolaou, P. Bergman, and D. Lindblom, “Postoperative stroke in cardiac surgery is related to the location and extent of atherosclerotic disease in the ascending aorta,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 131–135, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Suvarna, A. Smith, J. Stygall et al., “An intraoperative assessment of the ascending aorta: a comparison of digital palpation, transesophageal echocardiography, and epiaortic ultrasonography,” Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 805–809, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. L. D. Hillis, P. K. Smith, J. L. Anderson, et al., “2011 ACCF/AHA guideline for coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines,” Circulation, vol. 124, no. 23, pp. e652–e735, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar