About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 839683, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/839683
Review Article

Microfluidics for Synthesis of Peptide-Based PET Tracers

Yang Liu,1,2,3,4 Mei Tian,1,2,3,4 and Hong Zhang1,2,3,4

1Department of Nuclear Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, China
2Zhejiang University Medical PET Center, Zhejiang University, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, China
3Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Zhejiang University, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, China
4Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, China

Received 26 July 2013; Revised 14 September 2013; Accepted 17 September 2013

Academic Editor: Yasuhisa Fujibayashi

Copyright © 2013 Yang Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. T. Chin, B. Shen, S. Liu et al., “First experience with clinical-grade ([18F]FPP(RGD(2)): an automated multi-step radiosynthesis for clinical PET studies,” Molecular Imaging and Biology, vol. 14, pp. 88–95, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. S. Mittra, M. L. Goris, A. H. Iagaru et al., “Pilot pharmacokinetic and dosimetric studies of18F-FPPRGD2: a PET radiopharmaceutical agent for imaging αvβ3 integrin levels,” Radiology, vol. 260, no. 1, pp. 182–191, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. Wong, R. Iwata, H. Saiki, S. Furumoto, Y. Ishikawa, and E. Ozeki, “Reactivity of electrochemically concentrated anhydrous [18F]fluoride for microfluidic radiosynthesis of18F-labeled compounds,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 193–199, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. X. Zeng, A. V. Desai, D. Ranganathan, T. D. Wheeler, P. J. A. Kenis, and D. E. Reichert, “Microfluidic radiolabeling of biomolecules with PET radiometals,” Nuclear Medicine and Biology, vol. 40, pp. 42–51, 2013.
  5. A. M. Elizarov, “Microreactors for radiopharmaceutical synthesis,” Lab on a Chip, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1326–1333, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. Audrain, “Positron emission tomography (PET) and microfluidic devices: a breakthrough on the microscale?” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 1772–1775, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. W. Miller, H. Audrain, D. Bender et al., “Rapid carbon-11 radiolabelling for PET using microfluidics,” Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 460–463, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Pascali, P. Watts, and P. A. Salvadori, “Microfluidics in radiopharmaceutical chemistry,” Nuclear Medicine and Biology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 776–787, 2013.
  9. M. Wang, W. Lin, K. Liu, M. Masterman-Smith, and C. K. Shen, “Microfluidics for positron emission tomography probe development,” Molecular Imaging, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 175–191, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. V. Arima, G. Pascali, O. Lade, et al., “Radiochemistry on chip: towards dose-on-demand synthesis of PET radiopharmaceuticals,” Lab on a Chip, vol. 13, pp. 2328–2336, 2013.
  11. M. Fani and H. R. Maecke, “Radiopharmaceutical development of radiolabelled peptides,” European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 39, supplement 1, pp. S11–S30, 2012.
  12. V. Ambrosini, M. Fani, S. Fanti, F. Forrer, and H. R. Maecke, “Radiopeptide imaging and therapy in Europe,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 52, supplement 2, pp. 42S–55S, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. M. Graham and Y. Menda, “Radiopeptide imaging and therapy in the United States,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 52, pp. 56S–63S, 2011. View at Scopus
  14. M. Schottelius and H. Wester, “Molecular imaging targeting peptide receptors,” Methods, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 161–177, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. Varagnolo, M. P. M. Stokkel, U. Mazzi, and E. K. J. Pauwels, “18F-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for PET in oncology, excluding FDG,” Nuclear Medicine and Biology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 103–112, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Z. Cheng, L. Zhang, E. Graves et al., “Small-animal PET of melanocortin 1 receptor expression using a 18F-labeled α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analog,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 987–994, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Jiang, S. J. Moore, S. Liu et al., “A novel radiofluorinated agouti-related protein for tumor angiogenesis imaging,” Amino Acids, vol. 44, pp. 673–681, 2013.
  18. D. M. Goldenberg, R. M. Sharkey, W. J. McBride, and O. C. Boerman, “Al18F: a new standard for radiofluorination,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 54, p. 1170, 2013.
  19. W. J. McBride, R. M. Sharkey, and D. M. Goldenberg, “Radiofluorination using aluminum-fluoride (Al18F),” EJNMMI Research, vol. 3, p. 36, 2013.
  20. S. Liu, H. Liu, H. Jiang, Y. Xu, H. Zhang, and Z. Cheng, “One-step radiosynthesis of18F-AlF-NOTA-RGD2 for tumor angiogenesis PET imaging,” European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1732–1741, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. R. Maecke, M. Hofmann, and U. Haberkorn, “68Ga-labeled peptides in tumor imaging,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 46, pp. 172S–178S, 2005. View at Scopus
  22. G. Ren, R. Zhang, Z. Liu et al., “A 2-helix small protein labeled with 68Ga for PET imaging of HER2 expression,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 1492–1499, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Shokeen and C. J. Anderson, “Molecular imaging of cancer with copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals and positron emission tomography (PET),” Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 832–841, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. V. Smith, “Molecular imaging with copper-64,” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, vol. 98, no. 11, pp. 1874–1901, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. D. Bartholomä, “Recent developments in the design of bifunctional chelators for metal-based radiopharmaceuticals used in Positron Emission Tomography,” Inorganica Chimica Acta, vol. 389, pp. 36–51, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Z. Li and P. S. Conti, “Radiopharmaceutical chemistry for positron emission tomography,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 1031–1051, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. C. Garrison, T. L. Rold, G. L. Sieckman et al., “In vivo evaluation and small-animal PET/CT of a prostate cancer mouse model using Cu-64 bombesin analogs: side-by-side comparison of the CB-TE2A and DOTA chelation systems,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1327–1337, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. X. Zhang, W. Cai, F. Cao et al., “18F-labeled bombesin analogs for targeting GRP receptor-expressing prostate cancer,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 492–501, 2006. View at Scopus
  29. J. Schuhmacher, H. Zhang, J. Doll et al., “GRP receptor-targeted PET of a rat pancreas carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with a 68Ga-labeled bombesin(6–14) analog,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 691–699, 2005. View at Scopus
  30. X. Chen, R. Park, Y. Hou et al., “MicroPET and autoradiographic imaging of GRP receptor expression with Cu-64-DOTA-Lys(3) bombesin in human prostate adenocarcinoma xenografts,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1390–1397, 2004. View at Scopus
  31. M. Honer, L. Mu, T. Stellfeld et al., “18F-labeled bombesin analog for specific and effective targeting of prostate tumors expressing gastrin-releasing peptide receptors,” Journal of Nuclear Medicine, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 270–278, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. D. I. Fletcher, S. J. Haswell, E. Pombo-Villar et al., “Micro reactors: principles and applications in organic synthesis,” Tetrahedron, vol. 58, no. 24, pp. 4735–4757, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. Wang, J. Ouyang, D. K. Ye, J. J. Xu, H. Y. Chen, and X. H. Xia, “Rapid protein concentration, efficient fluorescence labeling and purification on a micro/nanofluidics chip,” Lab on a Chip, vol. 12, pp. 2664–2671, 2012.
  34. A. J. deMello, “Control and detection of chemical reactions in microfluidic systems,” Nature, vol. 442, no. 7101, pp. 394–402, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Geyer, J. D. C. Codée, and P. H. Seeberger, “Microreactors as tools for synthetic Chemists—the chemists' round-bottomed flask of the 21st century?” Chemistry, vol. 12, no. 33, pp. 8434–8442, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. L. Hartman and K. F. Jensen, “Microchemical systems for continuous-flow synthesis,” Lab on a Chip, vol. 9, no. 17, pp. 2495–2507, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. M. Whitesides, “The origins and the future of microfluidics,” Nature, vol. 442, no. 7101, pp. 368–373, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. R. Sahoo, J. G. Kralj, and K. F. Jensen, “Multistep continuous-flow microchemical synthesis involving multiple reactions and separations,” Angewandte Chemie, vol. 46, no. 30, pp. 5704–5708, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. Pagano, M. L. Heil, and N. D. P. Cosford, “Automated multistep continuous flow synthesis of 2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)thiazole derivatives,” Synthesis-Stuttgart, vol. 44, pp. 2537–2546, 2012.
  40. X. Y. Liu and K. F. Jensen, “Multistep synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines in continuous flow microreactor systems using oxygen and urea hydrogen peroxide as oxidants,” Green Chemistry, vol. 15, pp. 1538–1541, 2013.
  41. T. D. Wheeler, D. Zeng, A. V. Desai, B. Önal, D. E. Reichert, and P. J. A. Kenis, “Microfluidic labeling of biomolecules with radiometals for use in nuclear medicine,” Lab on a Chip, vol. 10, no. 24, pp. 3387–3396, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. Bejot, A. M. Elizarov, E. Ball et al., “Batch-mode microfluidic radiosynthesis of N-succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate for protein labelling,” Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 117–122, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Richter, V. Bouvet, M. Wuest et al., “F-labeled phosphopeptide-cell-penetrating peptide dimers with enhanced cell uptake properties in human cancer cells,” Nuclear Medicine and Biology, vol. 39, no. 18, pp. 1202–1212, 2012.
  44. K. Liu, E. J. Lepin, M. Wang et al., “Microfluidic-based18F-labeling of biomolecules for immuno-positron emission tomography,” Molecular Imaging, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 168–176, 161–167, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. V. Selivanova, L. Mu, J. Ungersboeck et al., “Single-step radiofluorination of peptides using continuous flow microreactor,” Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 19, pp. 3871–3874, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus