Table 1: Baseline characteristics and factors associated with retention in preantiretroviral therapy care.

Baseline characteristics Retention in care Multivariable analysis of factors associated with retention  
in pre-ART care
( ) (65.3% overall)OverallMalesFemales
N (%)N (%)aRR (95% CI)aRR (95% CI)aRR (95% CI)

Age (years)
 <25471 (27.77)294 (62.42)0.93 (0.85–1.01)0.93 (0.76–1.14)0.94 (0.86–1.03)
 25–35795 (46.88)537 (67.55)1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)
 35–45312 (18.4)205 (65.71)1.00 (0.91–1.09)0.97 (0.85–1.11)1.03 (0.92–1.16)
 >45118 (6.96)72 (61.02)0.95 (0.82–1.10)0.96 (0.80–1.15)0.92 (0.72–1.18)
Disadvantaged community447 (26.36)272 (60.85)0.91* (0.84–0.99)1.02 (0.90–1.16)0.84* (0.76–0.94)
Illiteracy963 (56.88)607 (63.03)0.88* (0.83–0.95)0.85* (0.76–0.95)0.91* (0.84–0.99)
Marital status
 Divorced/separated76 (4.49)44 (57.89)0.94 (0.77–1.15)0.90 (0.65–1.25)0.97 (0.76–1.23)
 Married1206 (71.23)777 (64.43)1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)
 Unmarried103 (6.08)50 (48.54)0.83 (0.68–1.02)0.83 (0.67–1.03)1.07 (0.65–1.77)
 Widowed308 (18.19)235 (76.3)1.18* (1.09–1.28)1.22 (0.99–1.50)1.17* (1.08–1.28)
Homeless127 (7.78)48 (37.8)0.56* (0.45–0.69)0.53* (0.37–0.75)0.58* (0.44–0.76)
Living near an ART centre602 (35.5)400 (66.45)1.03 (0.96–1.10)1.03 (0.92–1.16)1.03 (0.95–1.13)
Living near a town785 (46.29)535 (68.15)1.09* (1.01–1.16)1.06 (0.94–1.18)1.11* (1.02–1.20)
Poverty691 (41.98)469 (67.87)1.08* (1.01–1.16)1.06 (0.94–1.19)1.10* (1.01–1.20)
Follow-up period (years)
 0-1719 (42.39)537 (74.69)1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)
 1-2472 (27.83)290 (61.44)0.81* (0.74–0.88)0.76* (0.66–0.87)0.85* (0.76–0.94)
 2-3338 (19.93)191 (56.51)0.75* (0.68–0.83)0.66* (0.56–0.79)0.82* (0.73–0.93)
 >3167 (9.85)90 (53.89)0.70* (0.61–0.80)0.51* (0.37–0.70)0.82* (0.71–0.95)
First CD4 count
 <350426 (25.12)267 (62.68)0.92 (0.84–1.01)0.87 (0.75–1.01)0.97 (0.87–1.09)
 350–500619 (36.5)414 (66.88)1.00 (0.93–1.08)0.98 (0.86–1.11)1.03 (0.94–1.13)
 >500651 (38.38)427 (65.59)1 (reference)1 (reference)1 (reference)
Symptomatic at HIV diagnosis808 (47.64)481 (59.53)0.90* (0.84–0.97)0.93 (0.83–1.04)0.90* (0.82–1.00)
Female gender923 (54.42)644 (69.77)1.09* (1.00–1.18)

P value <0.05. ART: antiretroviral therapy; aRR: adjusted risk ratio; CI: confidence interval.