Table 4: Expression of genes in oocyte-like cells developed in vitro from human stem cells of different sources.

Gene expression of oocyte-like cells developed in vitro from stem cells in humans
SourceCritical culture conditionExpression of genes (method of detection)References

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)bFGF, feeder layer (mouse embryonic fibroblasts)Premigratory/migratory genes related to pluripotency: IFITM3, DAZL, NANOG, POU5F1, postmigratory genes: PIWIL2, PUM2 and genes related to meiosis: SYCP3 and MLH1 (RT-PCR). West et al., 2008 [3]

hESCsbFGF, feeder layer (mouse embryonic fibroblasts)Germ cell-related gene DDX4 (VASA) and pluripotency-related POU5F1 (OCT4). (RT-PCR)West et al., 2010 [4]

hESCsOvarian fibroblastsVASA, DAZL, GDF3, GDF9, MLH1, SCP1, PUM1, PUM2, POU5F1 (RT-PCR)Richards et al., 2010 [5]

hESCs
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)
Culture medium with glutamine, 2-mercaptoethanol and bFGFEarly germ cell markers:VASA, DAZL, IFITM1, PRDM1A, GCNF, GDF3, CKIT, PELOTA
Late germ cell and meiotic markers: SCP3, MLH1, DMC1, GDF9, ZP4
(Biomark 96.96 microfluidic qPCR chip Fluidigm).
Medrano et al., 2012 [6]

hESCs
hiPSCs from keratinocytes and umbilical cord blood
Culture medium with retinoic acid, forskolin, and bFGFOCT4, NANOG, SOX2, KLF4, C-MYC, DPPA4, DNMT3B, REX1, SALL2, LIN28, VASA,and STRA8 (RT-PCR)
Haploid cells confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosomes X, Y, and 18
Eguizabal et al., 2011 [7]

Stem cells from adult ovarian surface epithelium (hOSCs)Culture medium with phenol red (weak estrogenic stimuli) OCT4A, OCT4B, c-KIT, VASA, and ZP2 (RT-PCR)Virant-Klun et al., 2008 [8]

Stem cells from adult ovarian surface epithelium (hOSCs)Culture medium with added follicular fluidOCT4A, SOX-2, NANOG, NANOS, STELLA, CD9, LIN28, KLF4, GDF3, and MYC (Single-Cell Gene Expression Analyses by Fluidigm BioMark System)Virant-Klun et al., 2011 [10]

Amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs)Culture medium with glutamine, beta-mercaptoethanol, and porcine follicular fluid BMP15, ZP1, ZP2, ZP3, c-kit, VASA (RT-PCR)
BMP15 was proposed as an important marker of oogenesis
Cheng et al., 2012 [11]