Table 3: Patients clinical finding on arrival time (at ED).

CharacteristicsTotalNLTXPlaceboP value

Loss of Consciousness
 Nil28 (51.9%)16 (59.3%)12 (44.4%)0.15
 Grade I17 (31.5%)9 (33.3%)8 (29.6%)
 Grade II6 (11.1%)1 (3.7%)5 (18.5%)
 Grade III1 (1.9%)0 (0.0%)1 (3.7%)
 Grade IV2 (3.7%)1 (3.7%)1 (3.7%)
Heart rate (Beat/min)
 Mean ± SD 0.71
Systolic BP (mmHg)
 Mean ± SD 0.26
Diastolic BP (mmHg)
 Mean ± SD 0.47
Temperature (°C)
 Mean ± SD 0.40
Pupil size
 Normal12 (22.2%)7 (25.9%)5 (18.5%)0.51**
 Miosis42 (77.8%)20 (74.1%)22 (81.5%)
 Mydriasis1 (1.9%)0 (0.0%)1 (3.7%)
Dyspnea21 (38.9%)11 (40.7%)10 (37.0%)0.78*
Cyanosis13 (24.1%)7 (25.9%)6 (22.2%)>0.99*
Bradypnea25 (46.3%)9 (33.3%)10 (37%)0.79*
Tachypnea (RR > 32/min)2 (3.7%)0 (0.0%)2 (7.4%)0.49**
Apnea occurrence8 (14.8%)3 (11.1%)5 (18.5%)0.70**
Respiratory depression21 (38.9%)9 (33.3%)12 (44.4%)0.40*
Taking naloxone19 (35.2%)9 (33.3%)10 (37.0%)0.78*
Naloxone doses (mg)
 Mean ± SD1.4 ± 1.50.6 ± 0.42.2 ± 1.7<0.01
ABG
pH
 Mean ± SD 0.05
pCO2 (mmHg)
 Mean ± SD 0.09
HCO3 (mmHg)
 Mean ± SD 0.61
paO2 (mmHg)
 Mean ± SD 0.15
O2 Saturation (%)
 Mean ± SD 0.13

Student’s t-test. Mann-Whitney U test. ED: emergency department, ABG: arterial blood gases.
Chi-Square test. **Fisher’s exact test.