Table 2: Cytokine, apoptosis-related, and tissue destruction proteins differentially expressed in human transformed macrophage cell lines, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and monocytes-derived macrophages (MDM) obtained from Crohn’s disease (CD) patients after stimulation with bovine or human isolates of Map.

Cell ModelMap  
strain
Map/cells
ratio
AssayTime p.i. (h)
Upregulated
cytokines
Downregulated
cytokines
Reference

THP-11,2Bovine 10185 : 1Microarray2 hIL-18, IL-12B, IL-23A, TNF-α, LRDD, and PDC28[41]

PBMC from CD patients3Human
ATCC 43019
1 : 1Flow cytometry72 hIL-10, IL-6, and TNF-αIFN-γ[42]

MDM from CD patients3Human
ATCC 43015
10 : 1Flow cytometry3 h
72 h
IL-23  
TNF-α[43]

THP-1, human monocytic cell line.
2Comparisons were made between uninfected and infected cells.
3Comparisons were made between Map-infected macrophages from CD patients and controls.