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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 915436, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/915436
Research Article

Bauhinia variegata Leaf Extracts Exhibit Considerable Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities

1Department of Biochemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, India
2Cancer Pharmacology Division, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu 180001, India

Received 30 April 2013; Accepted 1 August 2013

Academic Editor: Ivo Meinhold-Heerlein

Copyright © 2013 Amita Mishra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11–222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10–40 μg/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90–99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.