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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 918410, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/918410
Research Article

Catecholaminergic Gene Variants: Contribution in ADHD and Associated Comorbid Attributes in the Eastern Indian Probands

1Manovikas Biomedical Research and Diagnostic Centre, 482 Madudah, Plot I-24, Sector-J, E.M. Bypass, Kolkata 700107, India
2Department of Biotechnology, CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jalandhar, Panjab 140020, India
3Chembiotek, TCG Lifesciences, Kolkata 700091, India
4Department of Psychiatry, Chittaranjan National Medical College, Kolkata 700020, India

Received 4 April 2013; Revised 7 August 2013; Accepted 12 August 2013

Academic Editor: Xueyuan Cao

Copyright © 2013 Paramita Ghosh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Contribution of genes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been explored in various populations, and several genes were speculated to contribute small but additive effects. We have assessed variants in four genes, DDC (rs3837091 and rs3735273), DRD2 (rs1800496, rs1801028, and rs1799732), DRD4 (rs4646984 and rs4646983), and COMT (rs165599 and rs740603) in Indian ADHD subjects with comorbid attributes. Cases were recruited following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV-TR after obtaining informed written consent. DNA isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes of ADHD probands ( ), their parents ( ), and ethnically matched controls ( ) was used for genotyping followed by population- and family-based analyses by the UNPHASED program. DRD4 sites showed significant difference in allelic frequencies by case-control analysis, while DDC and COMT exhibited bias in familial transmission ( ). rs3837091 “AGAG,” rs3735273 “A,” rs1799732 “C,” rs740603 “G,” rs165599 “G” and single repeat alleles of rs4646984/rs4646983 showed positive correlation with co-morbid characteristics ( ). Multi dimensionality reduction analysis of case-control data revealed significant interactive effects of all four genes ( ), while family-based data showed interaction between DDC and DRD2 ( ). This first study on these gene variants in Indo-Caucasoid ADHD probands and associated co-morbid conditions indicates altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in ADHD.