- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 918410, 12 pages
Catecholaminergic Gene Variants: Contribution in ADHD and Associated Comorbid Attributes in the Eastern Indian Probands
1Manovikas Biomedical Research and Diagnostic Centre, 482 Madudah, Plot I-24, Sector-J, E.M. Bypass, Kolkata 700107, India
2Department of Biotechnology, CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jalandhar, Panjab 140020, India
3Chembiotek, TCG Lifesciences, Kolkata 700091, India
4Department of Psychiatry, Chittaranjan National Medical College, Kolkata 700020, India
Received 4 April 2013; Revised 7 August 2013; Accepted 12 August 2013
Academic Editor: Xueyuan Cao
Copyright © 2013 Paramita Ghosh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 2000.
- K. Larson, S. A. Russ, R. S. Kahn, and N. Halfon, “Patterns of comorbidity, functioning, and service use for US children with ADHD, 2007,” Pediatrics, vol. 127, no. 3, pp. 462–470, 2011.
- J. W. Lazar and Y. Frank, “Frontal systems dysfunction in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities,” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 160–167, 1998.
- C. M. Freitag and W. Retz, “Family and twin studies in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Key Issues in Mental Health, vol. 176, pp. 38–57, 2010.
- M. Das, A. D. Bhowmik, N. Bhaduri et al., “Role of gene-gene/gene-environment interaction in the etiology of eastern Indian ADHD probands,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 577–587, 2011.
- S. DiMaio, N. Grizenko, and R. Joober, “Dopamine genes and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review,” Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 27–38, 2003.
- E. F. Coccaro, S. L. Hirsch, and M. A. Stein, “Plasma homovanillic acid correlates inversely with history of learning problems in healthy volunteer and personality disordered subjects,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 149, no. 1–3, pp. 297–302, 2007.
- O. Civelli, J. R. Bunjow, and D. K. Grandy, “Molecular diversity of the dopamine receptors,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 32, pp. 281–307, 1993.
- J. A. Gingrich and M. G. Caron, “Recent advances in the molecular biology of dopamine receptors,” Annual Review of Neuroscience, vol. 16, pp. 299–231, 1993.
- X. Fan, M. Xu, and E. J. Hess, “D2 dopamine receptor subtype-mediated hyperactivity and amphetamine responses in a model of ADHD,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 228–236, 2010.
- P. Shaw, M. Gornick, J. Lerch et al., “Polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor, clinical outcome, and cortical structure in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 921–931, 2007.
- N. Bhaduri, M. Das, S. Sinha et al., “Association of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) polymorphisms with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Indian population,” American Journal of Medical Genetics B, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 61–66, 2006.
- E. Kereszturi, O. Kiraly, Z. Csapo et al., “Association between the 120-bp duplication of the dopamine D4 receptor gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: genetic and molecular analyses,” American Journal of Medical Genetics B, vol. 144, no. 2, pp. 231–236, 2007.
- J. T. McCracken, S. L. Smalley, J. J. McGough et al., “Evidence for linkage of a tandem duplication polymorphism upstream of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 531–536, 2000.
- T. Banaschewski, K. Becker, S. Scherag, B. Franke, and D. Coghill, “Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an overview,” European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 237–257, 2010.
- I. D. Waldman and I. R. Gizer, “The genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Clinical Psychology Review, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 396–432, 2006.
- E. Mick and S. V. Faraone, “Genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 261–284, 2008.
- L. Guan, B. Wang, Y. Chen et al., “A high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism screen of 23 candidate genes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: suggesting multiple susceptibility genes among Chinese Han population,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 546–554, 2009.
- P. J. Carpentier, A. Arias Vasquez, M. Hoogman et al., “Shared and unique genetic contributions to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders: a pilot study of six candidate genes,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 23, pp. 448–457, 2013.
- Z. Hawi, N. Matthews, E. Barry et al., “A high density linkage disequilibrium mapping in 14 noradrenergic genes: evidence of association between SLC6A2, ADRA1B and ADHD,” Psychopharmacology (Berl), vol. 225, pp. 895–902, 2013.
- J. Lasky-Su, B. M. Neale, B. Franke et al., “Genome-wide association scan of quantitative traits for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder identifies novel associations and confirms candidate gene associations,” American Journal of Medical Genetics B, vol. 147, no. 8, pp. 1345–1354, 2008.
- M. Ribasés, J. A. Ramos-Quiroga, A. Hervás et al., “Exploration of 19 serotoninergic candidate genes in adults and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder identifies association for 5HT2A, DDC and MAOB,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 71–85, 2009.
- Q.-J. Qian, J. Liu, Y.-F. Wang, L. Yang, L.-L. Guan, and S. V. Faraone, “Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type: evidence for an association with COMT but not MAOA in a Chinese sample,” Behavioral and Brain Functions, vol. 5, article 8, 2009.
- D. E. Comings, R. Gade-Andavolu, N. Gonzalez et al., “Comparison of the role of dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline genes in ADHD, ODD and conduct disorder: multivariate regression analysis of 20 genes,” Clinical Genetics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 178–196, 2000.
- A. Kirley, Z. Hawi, G. Daly et al., “Dopaminergic system genes in ADHD: toward a biological hypothesis,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 607–619, 2002.
- E. S. Nyman, M. N. Ogdie, A. Loukola et al., “ADHD candidate gene study in a population-based birth cohort: association with DBH and DRD2,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 1614–1621, 2007.
- E. Michaelovsky, D. Gothelf, M. Korostishevsky et al., “Association between a common haplotype in the COMT gene region and psychiatric disorders in individuals with 22q11.2DS,” International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 351–363, 2008.
- J. Wu, H. Xiao, H. Sun, L. Zou, and L. Q. Zhu, “Role of dopamine receptors in ADHD: a systematic meta-analysis,” Molecular Neurobiology, vol. 45, pp. 605–620, 2012.
- H. Zhang, Y. Ye, X. Wang, J. Gelernter, J. Z. Ma, and M. D. Li, “DOPA decarboxylase gene is associated with nicotine dependence,” Pharmacogenomics, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1159–1166, 2006.
- P. Prasad, A. Ambekar, and M. Vaswani, “Dopamine D2 receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to alcohol dependence in Indian males: a preliminary study,” BMC Medical Genetics, vol. 11, no. 1, article 24, 2010.
- C. K. Conners, Conners' Rating Scales—Revised Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Canada, 1997.
- D. Wechsler, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Manual, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 3rd edition, 1991.
- J. Bharat Raj, “AIISH norms on SFB with Indian children,” Journal of All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, vol. 2, pp. 34–39, 1971.
- S. A. Miller, D. D. Dykes, and H. F. Polesky, “A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 1215, 1988.
- F. Dudbridge, “Pedigree disequilibrium tests for multilocus haplotypes,” Genetic Epidemiology, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 115–121, 2003.
- R. S. Spielman, R. E. McGinnis, and W. J. Ewens, “Transmission test for linkage disequilibrium: the insulin gene region and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM),” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 506–516, 1993.
- J. D. Terwilliger and J. Ott, “A haplotype-based “Haplotype Relative Risk” approach to detecting allelic associations,” Human Heredity, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 337–346, 1992.
- R. V. Lenth, “Statistical power calculations,” Journal of animal science, vol. 85, no. 13, pp. E24–E29, 2007.
- J. H. Moore, J. C. Gilbert, C.-T. Tsai et al., “A flexible computational framework for detecting, characterizing, and interpreting statistical patterns of epistasis in genetic studies of human disease susceptibility,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 241, no. 2, pp. 252–261, 2006.
- J. H. Moore and B. C. White, “Tuning relief for genome-wide genetic analysis,” in Evolutionary Computation,Machine Learning and Data Mining in Bioinformatics, vol. 4447 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 166–175, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2007.
- M. D. Ritchie, L. W. Hahn, N. Roodi et al., “Multifactor-dimensionality reduction reveals high-order interactions among estrogen-metabolism genes in sporadic breast cancer,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 138–147, 2001.
- L. W. Hahn, M. D. Ritchie, and J. H. Moore, “Multifactor dimensionality reduction software for detecting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions,” Bioinformatics, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 376–382, 2003.
- H. Mei, M. L. Cuccaro, and E. R. Martin, “Multifactor dimensionality reduction-phenomics: a novel method to capture genetic heterogeneity with use of phenotypic variables,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 1251–1261, 2007.
- E. R. Martin, M. D. Ritchie, L. Hahn, S. Kang, and J. H. Moore, “A novel method to identify gene-gene effects in nuclear families: the MDR-PDT,” Genetic Epidemiology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 111–123, 2006.
- A. Thapar, R. Harrington, and P. McGuffin, “Examining the comorbidity of ADHD-related behaviours and conduct problems using a twin study design,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 179, pp. 224–229, 2001.
- M. Ernst, A. J. Zametkin, J. A. Matochik, D. Pascualvaca, P. H. Jons, and R. M. Cohen, “High midbrain [18F]DOPA accumulation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 156, no. 8, pp. 1209–1215, 1999.
- M. J. Parsons, I. Mata, M. Beperet et al., “A dopamine D2 receptor gene-related polymorphism is associated with schizophrenia in a Spanish population isolate,” Psychiatric Genetics, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 159–163, 2007.
- L. N. AL-Eitan, S. A. Jaradat, G. K. Hulse, and G. K. Tay, “Custom genotyping for substance addiction susceptibility genes in Jordanians of Arab descent,” BMC Research Notes, vol. 5, article 497, 2012.
- A. Cravchik, D. R. Sibley, and P. V. Gejman, “Functional analysis of the human D2 dopamine receptor missense variants,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 271, no. 42, pp. 26013–26017, 1996.
- A. Doehring, A. Kirchhof, and J. Lötsch, “Genetic diagnostics of functional variants of the human dopamine D2 receptor gene,” Psychiatric genetics, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 259–268, 2009.
- R. D. Todd and E. A. Lobos, “Mutation screening of the dopamine D2 receptor gene in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes: preliminary report of a research strategy,” American Journal of Medical Genetics B, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 34–41, 2002.
- T. Arinami, M. Gao, H. Hamaguchi, and M. Toru, “A functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the dopamine D2 receptor gene is associated with schizophrenia,” Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 577–582, 1997.
- M. J. Arranz and J. De Leon, “Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics of schizophrenia: a review of last decade of research,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 707–747, 2007.
- J.-P. Zhang, T. Lencz, and A. K. Malhotra, “D2 receptor genetic variation and clinical response to antipsychotic drug treatment: a meta-analysis,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 167, no. 7, pp. 763–772, 2010.
- C. Sánchez-Mora, M. Ribasés, M. Casas et al., “Exploring DRD4 and its interaction with SLC6A3 as possible risk factors for adult ADHD: a meta-analysis in four European populations,” American Journal of Medical Genetics B, vol. 156, no. 5, pp. 600–612, 2011.
- V. Kustanovich, J. Ishii, L. Crawford et al., “Transmission disequilibrium testing of dopamine-related candidate gene polymorphisms in ADHD: confirmation of association of ADHD with DRD4 and DRD5,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 711–717, 2004.
- K.-J. Brookes, X. Xu, C.-K. Chen, Y.-S. Huang, Y.-Y. Wu, and P. Asherson, “No evidence for the association of DRD4 with ADHD in a Taiwanese population within-family study,” BMC Medical Genetics, vol. 6, article 31, 2005.
- P. Seeman, C. Ulpian, G. Chouinard et al., “Dopamine D4 receptor variant, D4GLYCINE194, in Africans, but not in Caucasians: no association with schizophrenia,” American Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 384–390, 1994.
- M. Catalano, M. Nobile, E. Novelli, M. M. Nothen, and E. Smeraldi, “Distribution of a novel mutation in the first exon of the human dopamine D4 receptor gene in psychotic patients,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 459–464, 1993.
- D. K. L. Cheuk and V. Wong, “Meta-analysis of association between a catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Behavior Genetics, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 651–659, 2006.
- J. Beuten, T. J. Payne, J. Z. Ma, and M. D. Li, “Significant association of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) haplotypes with nicotine dependence in male and female smokers of two ethnic populations,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 675–684, 2006.
- N. J. Bray, P. R. Buckland, N. M. Williams et al., “A haplotype implicated in schizophrenia susceptibility is associated with reduced COMT expression in human brain,” American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 152–161, 2003.
- D. Turic, H. Williams, K. Langley, M. Owen, A. Thapar, and M. C. O'Donovan, “A family based study of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),” American Journal of Medical Genetics B, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 64–67, 2005.
- J. M. Hettema, S.-S. An, J. Bukszar et al., “Catechol-O-methyltransferase contributes to genetic susceptibility shared among anxiety spectrum phenotypes,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 302–310, 2008.
- M. Karayiorgou, C. Sobin, M. L. Blundell et al., “Family-based association studies support a sexually dimorphic effect of COMT and MAOA on genetic susceptibility to obsessive-compulsive disorder,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 1178–1189, 1999.
- H. Halleland, A. J. Lundervold, A. Halmøy, J. Haavik, and S. Johansson, “Association between catechol O-methyltransferase [COMT] haplotypes and severity of hyperactivity symptoms in adults,” American Journal of Medical Genetics B, vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 403–410, 2009.
- L. C. Bidwell, M. E. Garrett, F. J. McClernon et al., “A preliminary analysis of interactions between genotype, retrospective ADHD symptoms, and initial reactions to smoking in a sample of young adults,” Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 229–233, 2012.
- K. M. Beaver, J. P. Wright, M. DeLisi et al., “A gene × gene interaction between DRD2 and DRD4 is associated with conduct disorder and antisocial behavior in males,” Behavioral and Brain Functions, vol. 3, article 30, 2007.
- S. Heinzel, T. Dresler, C. G. Baehne et al., “COMT×DRD4 epistasis impacts prefrontal cortex function underlying response control,” Cerebral Cortex, vol. 23, pp. 1453–1462, 2013.
- H. Xu, C. B. Kellendonk, E. H. Simpson et al., “DRD2 C957T polymorphism interacts with the COMT Val158Met polymorphism in human working memory ability,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 90, no. 1–3, pp. 104–107, 2007.
- P. J. Harrison and D. R. Weinberger, “Schizophrenia genes, gene expression, and neuropathology: on the matter of their convergence,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 40–68, 2005.
- C. Kellendonk, E. H. Simpson, H. J. Polan et al., “Transient and selective overexpression of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum causes persistent abnormalities in prefrontal cortex functioning,” Neuron, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 603–615, 2006.