- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 918642, 7 pages
The Golden Ratio of Gait Harmony: Repetitive Proportions of Repetitive Gait Phases
1Santa Lucia Foundation, IRCCS, Via Ardeatina 306, 00179 Rome, Italy
2Dipartimento di Medicina dei Sistemi, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata,” Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
Received 11 April 2013; Revised 16 May 2013; Accepted 19 May 2013
Academic Editor: Hitoshi Mochizuki
Copyright © 2013 Marco Iosa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- H. B. Menz, S. R. Lord, and R. C. Fitzpatrick, “Acceleration patterns of the head and pelvis when walking on level and irregular surfaces,” Gait and Posture, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 35–46, 2003.
- S. M. Bruijn, P. Meyns, I. Jonkers, D. Kaat, and J. Duysens, “Control of angular momentum during walking in children with cerebral palsy,” Research in Developmental Disabilities, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 2860–2866, 2011.
- M. Iosa, T. Marro, S. Paolucci, and D. Morelli, “Stability and harmony of gait in children with cerebral palsy,” Research in Developmental Disabilities, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 129–135, 2012.
- N. A. Borghese, L. Bianchi, and F. Lacquaniti, “Kinematic deferminants of human locomotion,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 494, no. 3, pp. 863–879, 1996.
- D. S. Reisman, H. J. Block, and A. J. Bastian, “Interlimb coordination during locomotion: what can be adapted and stored?” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 2403–2415, 2005.
- A. Cappozzo, “Low frequency self-generated vibration during ambulation in normal men,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 599–609, 1982.
- M. Iosa, C. Mazzà, R. Frusciante et al., “Mobility assessment of patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy,” Clinical Biomechanics, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 1074–1082, 2007.
- G. Giakas and V. Baltzopoulos, “Time and frequency domain analysis of ground reaction forces during walking: an investigation of variability and symmetry,” Gait and Posture, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 189–197, 1997.
- C. J. C. Lamoth, O. G. Meijer, P. I. J. M. Wuisman, J. H. van Dieën, M. F. Levin, and P. J. Beek, “Pelvis-thorax coordination in the transverse plane during walking in persons with nonspecific low back pain,” Spine, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. E92–E99, 2002.
- J. Perry, Gait Analysis: Normal and Pathological Function, Slack Incorporated, Thorofare, NJ, USA, 1992.
- C. Kirtley, Clinical Gait Analysis; Theory and Practice, Elsevier, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2006.
- D. A. Winter, A. E. Patla, J. S. Frank, and S. E. Walt, “Biomechanical walking pattern changes in the fit and healthy elderly,” Physical Therapy, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 340–347, 1990.
- J. Shemmell, J. Johansson, V. Portra, G. L. Gottlieb, J. S. Thomas, and D. M. Corcos, “Control of interjoint coordination during the swing phase of normal gait at different speeds,” Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, vol. 27, no. 4, article 10, 2007.
- R. Riener, M. Rabuffetti, and C. Frigo, “Stair ascent and descent at different inclinations,” Gait and Posture, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 32–44, 2002.
- R. B. Wright, D. M. Yoder, J. L. Costa, and T. P. Andriacchi, “Characterization of gait parameters in adult-onset myotonic dystrophy: abnormal hip motion,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 33–38, 1995.
- B. Abernethy, S. J. Hanrahan, V. Kippers, L. T. Mackinnon, and M. G. Pandy, The Biophysical Foundations of Human Movement, Palgrave Macmillan, Melbourne, Australia, 2nd edition, 2005.
- N. Lythgo, C. Wilson, and M. Galea, “Basic gait and symmetry measures for primary school-aged children and young adults. II: walking at slow, free and fast speed,” Gait and Posture, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 29–35, 2011.
- I. Grattan Guinnes, Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003.
- P. Hemenway, Divine Proportion: Phi in Art, Nature, and Science, Sterling Publishing, New York, NY, USA, 2005.
- L. Pacioli, De Divina Proportione, Paganinus de Paganinus, Venice, Italy, 1509.
- T. Okabe, “Physical phenomenology of phyllotaxis,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 280, no. 1, pp. 63–75, 2011.
- E. Gosling, Bivalve Molluscs. Biology, Ecology and Culture, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, 2003.
- R. Coldea, D. A. Tennant, E. M. Wheeler et al., “Quantum criticality in an ising chain: experimental evidence for emergent e8 symmetry,” Science, vol. 327, no. 5962, pp. 177–180, 2010.
- M. E. B. Yamagishi and A. I. Shimabukuro, “Nucleotide frequencies in human genome and Fibonacci numbers,” Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 643–653, 2008.
- L. Staff, P. Hurd, L. Reale, C. Seoighe, A. Rockwood, et al., “The hidden geometries of the Arabidopsis thaliana epidermis,” Plos ONE, vol. 7, Article ID e43546, 2012.
- M. J. Woldenberg, M. P. O'Neill, L. J. Quackenbush, and R. J. Pentney, “Models for growth, decline and regrowth of the dendrites of rat Purkinje cells induced from magnitude and link-length analysis,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 162, no. 4, pp. 403–429, 1993.
- V. Ferring and H. Pancherz, “Divine proportions in the growing face,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 472–479, 2008.
- R. M. Ricketts, “Divine proportion in facial esthetics,” Clinics in Plastic Surgery, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 401–422, 1982.
- P. A. Russell, “The aesthetics of rectangle proportion: effects of judgment scale and context,” American Journal of Psychology, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 27–42, 2000.
- R. B. Davis III, S. Õunpuu, D. Tyburski, and J. R. Gage, “A gait analysis data collection and reduction technique,” Human Movement Science, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 575–587, 1991.
- S. Ounpuu, “The biomechanics of walking and running,” Clinics in Sports Medicine, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 843–863, 1994.
- A. Peppe, C. Chiavalon, P. Pasqualetti, D. Crovato, and C. Caltagirone, “Does gait analysis quantify motor rehabilitation efficacy in Parkinson's disease patients?” Gait and Posture, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 452–462, 2007.
- N. C. Reynolds Jr., J. B. Myklebust, T. E. Prieto, and B. M. Myklebust, “Analysis of gait abnormalities in Huntington disease,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 59–65, 1999.
- T. Kuan, J. Tsou, and F. Su, “Hemiplegic gait of stroke patients: the effect of using a cane,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 777–784, 1999.
- X. Wang and Y. Wang, “Gait analysis of children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy,” Neural Regeneration Research Journal, vol. 7, pp. 1578–1584, 2012.
- Y. P. Ivanenko, G. Cappellini, N. Dominici, R. E. Poppele, and F. Lacquaniti, “Modular control of limb movements during human locomotion,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 27, no. 41, pp. 11149–11161, 2007.
- E. P. Zehr, “Neural control of rhythmic human movement: the common core hypothesis,” Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 54–60, 2005.
- Y. P. Ivanenko, R. E. Poppele, and F. Lacquaniti, “Distributed neural networks for controlling human locomotion. Lessons from normal and SCI subjects,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 13–21, 2009.
- T. G. Graham Brown, “The intrinsic factors in the act of progression in the mammal,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 84, pp. 308–319, 1911.
- D. A. McCrea and I. A. Rybak, “Organization of mammalian locomotor rhythm and pattern generation,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 134–146, 2008.
- G. N. Orlovsky, T. Deliagina, and S. Grillner, Neuronal Control of Locomotion: From Mollusc to Man, Anonymous Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1999.
- H. Takahashi, Y. Takada, N. Nagai, T. Urano, and A. Takada, “Serotonergic neurons projecting to hippocampus activate locomotion,” Brain Research, vol. 869, no. 1-2, pp. 194–202, 2000.
- R. P. Iacono, S. M. Kuniyoshi, J. R. Ahlman, G. J. Zimmerman, G. Maeda, and R. D. Pearlstein, “Concentrations of indoleamine metabolic intermediates in the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of advanced Parkinson's patients with severe postural instability and gait disorders,” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 104, no. 4-5, pp. 451–459, 1997.
- G. Cappellini, Y. P. Ivanenko, R. E. Poppele, and F. Lacquaniti, “Motor patterns in human walking and running,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 3426–3437, 2006.
- N. Dominici, Y. P. Ivanenko, G. Cappellini et al., “Locomotor primitives in newborn babies and their development,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6058, pp. 997–999, 2011.
- S. S. Smith, “Step cycle-related oscillatory properties of inferior olivary neurons recorded in ensembles,” Neuroscience, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 69–81, 1997.
- V. Marlinski, W. U. Nilaweera, P. V. Zelenin, M. G. Sirota, and I. N. Beloozerova, “Signals from the ventrolateral thalamus to the motor cortex during locomotion,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 455–472, 2012.
- S. H. Collins, P. G. Adamczyk, and A. D. Kuo, “Dynamic arm swinging in human walking,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 276, no. 1673, pp. 3679–3688, 2009.
- F. Iannarilli, G. Vannozzi, M. Iosa, C. Pesce, and L. Caprinica, “Effects of task complexity on rhythmic reproduction performance in adults,” Human Movement Science, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 203–213, 2013.