- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 918970, 7 pages
Calcifications of Vertebrobasilar Arteries on CT: Detailed Distribution and Relation to Risk Factors in 245 Ischemic Stroke Patients
Department of Neurology, University Medical Centre Maribor, Ljubljanska Cesta 5, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
Received 12 April 2013; Revised 7 June 2013; Accepted 8 July 2013
Academic Editor: Michelangelo Mancuso
Copyright © 2013 Slaven Pikija et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- D. A. De Silva, F.-P. Woon, M.-P. Lee, C. P. L. H. Chen, H.-M. Chang, and M.-C. Wong, “South Asian patients with ischemic stroke: intracranial large arteries are the predominant site of disease,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 2592–2594, 2007.
- P. B. Gorelick, K. S. Wong, H.-J. Bae, and D. K. Pandey, “Large artery intracranial occlusive disease: a large worldwide burden but a relatively neglected frontier,” Stroke, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 2396–2399, 2008.
- L. K. S. Wong, “Global burden of intracranial atherosclerosis,” International Journal of Stroke, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 158–159, 2006.
- M. Mazighi, R. Tanasescu, X. Ducrocq et al., “Prospective study of symptomatic atherothrombotic intracranial stenoses: the GESICA Study,” Neurology, vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 1187–1191, 2006.
- C. Sánchez-Sánchez, J. A. Egido, J. L. González-Gutiérrez, J. Mera-Campillo, J. Carneado-Ruiz, and F. Díaz-Otero, “Stroke and intracranial stenosis: clinical profile in a series of 134 patients in Spain,” Revista de Neurologia, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 305–311, 2004.
- S. Ehara, Y. Kobayashi, M. Yoshiyama et al., “Spotty calcification typifies the culprit plaque in patients with acute myocardial infarction: an intravascular ultrasound study,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 22, pp. 3424–3429, 2004.
- R. Virmani, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and F. D. Kolodgie, “Pathology of the vulnerable plaque,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. C13–C18, 2006.
- T. M. Doherty, K. Asotra, L. A. Fitzpatrick et al., “Calcification in atherosclerosis: bone biology and chronic inflammation at the arterial crossroads,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 20, pp. 11201–11206, 2003.
- J. A. Berliner, M. Navab, A. M. Fogelman et al., “Atherosclerosis: basic mechanisms: oxidation, inflammation, and genetics,” Circulation, vol. 91, no. 9, pp. 2488–2496, 1995.
- X. Y. Chen, K. S. Wong, W. W. M. Lam, H.-L. Zhao, and H. K. Ng, “Middle cerebral artery atherosclerosis: histological comparison between plaques associated with and not associated with infarct in a postmortem study,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 25, no. 1-2, pp. 74–80, 2008.
- K. R. Nandalur, E. Baskurt, K. D. Hagspiel, C. D. Phillips, and C. M. Kramer, “Calcified carotid atherosclerotic plaque is associated less with ischemic symptoms than is noncalcified plaque on MDCT,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 184, no. 1, pp. 295–298, 2005.
- L. Caplan, “Posterior circulation ischemia: then, now, and tomorrow: the thomas willis lecture—2000,” Stroke, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 2011–2023, 2000.
- P. Castaigne, F. Lhermitte, J. C. Gautier et al., “Arterial occlusions in the vertebro-basilar system: a study of 44 patients with post-mortem data,” Brain, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 133–154, 1973.
- J.-M. Bugnicourt, J.-M. Chillon, Z. A. Massy et al., “High prevalence of intracranial artery calcification in stroke patients with CKD: a retrospective study,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 284–290, 2009.
- C. Fisher, I. Gore, N. Okabe, et al., “Atherosclerosis of the carotid and vertebral arteries-extracranial and intracranial,” Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, vol. 24, pp. 455–476, 1965.
- S. Koton, V. Tashlykov, Y. Schwammenthal et al., “Cerebral artery calcification in patients with acute cerebrovascular diseases: determinants and long-term clinical outcome,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 739–745, 2012.
- J. Moosy, “Morphology, sites and epidemiology of cerebral atherosclerosis,” in Cerebrovascular Disease, pp. 1–21, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1966.
- H. Ay, K. L. Furie, A. Singhal, W. S. Smith, A. G. Sorensen, and W. J. Koroshetz, “An evidence-based causative classification system for acute ischemic stroke,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 58, no. 5, pp. 688–697, 2005.
- J. Bamford, P. Sandercock, M. Dennis, J. Burn, and C. Warlow, “Classification and natural history of clinical identifiable subtypes of cerebral infarction,” The Lancet, vol. 337, no. 8756, pp. 1521–1526, 1991.
- P. J. Homburg, G. J. J. Plas, S. Rozie, A. Van Der Lugt, and D. W. J. Dippel, “Prevalence and calcification of intracranial arterial stenotic lesions as assessed with multidetector computed tomography angiography,” Stroke, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 1244–1250, 2011.
- L. R. Caplan and R. Baker, “Extracranial occlusive vascular disease: does size matter?” Stroke, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 63–66, 1980.
- C. J. Schwartz and J. R. Mitchell, “Atheroma of the carotid and vertebral arterial systems,” British Medical Journal, vol. 2, no. 5259, pp. 1057–1063, 1961.
- X.-Y. Chen, W. W. M. Lam, H. K. Ng, Y.-H. Fan, and K. S. Wong, “Intracranial artery calcification: a newly identified risk factor of ischemic stroke,” Journal of Neuroimaging, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 300–303, 2007.
- M. van Gils, M. Bodde, L. Cremers, et al., “Determinants of calcification growth in atherosclerotic carotid arteries, a serial multi-detector ct angiography study,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 227, no. 1, pp. 95–99, 2013.
- L. R. Caplan, P. B. Gorelick, and D. B. Hier, “Race, sex and occlusive cerebrovascular disease: a review,” Stroke, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 648–655, 1986.
- J. F. Cornhill, D. Akins, M. Hutson, and A. B. Chandler, “Localization of atherosclerotic lesions in the human basilar artery,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 77–86, 1980.
- J. F. Arenillas, C. A. Molina, P. Chacón et al., “High lipoprotein (a), diabetes, and the extent of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis,” Neurology, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 2004.
- K. S. Wong and H. Li, “Long-term mortality and recurrent stroke risk among Chinese stroke patients with predominant intracranial atherosclerosis,” Stroke, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 2361–2366, 2003.
- Y. H. Sohn, H. Y. Cheon, P. Jeon, and S. Y. Kang, “Clinical implication of cerebral artery calcification on brain CT,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 332–337, 2004.
- R. J. Wityk, D. Lehman, M. Klag, J. Coresh, H. Ahn, and B. Litt, “Race and sex differences in the distribution of cerebral atherosclerosis,” Stroke, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 1974–1980, 1996.
- J. J. Rivera, K. Nasir, P. R. Cox et al., “Association of traditional cardiovascular risk factors with coronary plaque sub-types assessed by 64-slice computed tomography angiography in a large cohort of asymptomatic subjects,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 206, no. 2, pp. 451–457, 2009.
- N. Izumo, T. Fujita, H. Nakamuta, and M. Koida, “Lipophilic statins can be osteogenic by promoting osteoblastic calcification in a Cbfa1- and BMP-2-independent manner,” Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 389–394, 2001.
- A. Saremi, T. E. Moritz, R. J. Anderson, C. Abraira, W. C. Duckworth, and P. D. Reaven, “Rates and determinants of coronary and abdominal aortic artery calcium progression in the veterans affairs diabetes trial (vadt),” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 12, pp. 2642–2647, 2010.