About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 919374, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/919374
Research Article

Antiosteoclastic Activity of Milk Thistle Extract after Ovariectomy to Suppress Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Osteoporosis

1Department of Food and Nutrition, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Kangwon-do 200-702, Republic of Korea
2Seorim Bio, Chuncheon, Kangwon-do 200-944, Republic of Korea

Received 7 January 2013; Accepted 30 April 2013

Academic Editor: Gary S. Stein

Copyright © 2013 Jung-Lye Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. A. Kanis, “Osteoporosis III: diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of fracture risk,” The Lancet, vol. 359, no. 9321, pp. 1929–1936, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. L. A. Fraser, K. N. Vogt, J. D. Adachi, and L. Thabane, “Fracture risk associated with continuation versus discontinuation of bisphosphonates after 5 years of therapy in patients with primary osteoporosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, vol. 7, pp. 157–166, 2011.
  3. T. M. Wensel, M. M. Iranikhah, and T. W. Wilborn, “Effects of denosumab on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women,” Pharmacotherapy, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 510–523, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. K. Beard, “Bisphosphonate therapy for osteoporosis: combining optimal fracture risk reduction with patient preference,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 141–147, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. S. Silverman and C. Christiansen, “Individualizing osteoporosis therapy,” Osteoporos International, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 797–809, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. K. Åkesson, “New approaches to pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 657–664, 2003. View at Scopus
  7. S. E. Putnam, A. M. Scutt, K. Bicknell, C. M. Priestley, and E. M. Williamson, “Natural products as alternative treatments for metabolic bone disorders and for maintenance of bone health,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 99–112, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Banu, E. Varela, and G. Fernandes, “Alternative therapies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 22–40, 2012.
  9. P. Sunita and S. P. Pattanayak, “Phytoestrogens in postmenopausal indications: a theoretical perspective,” Pharmacognosy Reviews, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 41–47, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. F. Al-Anazi, V. F. Qureshi, K. Javaid, and S. Qureshi, “Preventive effects of phytoestrogens against postmenopausal osteoporosis as compared to the available therapeutic choices: an overview,” Journal of Natural Science and Biological Medicine, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 154–163, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. J. V. Turner, S. Agatonovic-Kustrin, and B. D. Glass, “Molecular aspects of phytoestrogen selective binding at estrogen receptors,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 96, no. 8, pp. 1879–1885, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. M. Tyagi, K. Srivastava, K. Sharan, D. Yadav, R. Maurya, and D. Singh, “Daidzein prevents the increase in CD4+CD28null T cells and B lymphopoesis in ovariectomized mice: a key mechanism for anti-osteoclastogenic effect,” PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 6, Article ID e21216, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. C. Tseng, S. M. Hou, R. J. Chen et al., “Resveratrol promotes osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells by upregulating RUNX2 gene expression via the SIRT1/FOXO3A axis,” Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 2552–2563, 2011.
  14. J. L. Kim, S. H. Park, D. Jeong, J. S. Nam, and Y. H. Kang, “Osteogenic activity of silymarin through enhancement of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin in osteoblasts and tibia-fractured mice,” Experimental Biological Medicine, vol. 237, no. 4, pp. 417–428, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. P. Lu, T. Mamiya, L. L. Lu et al., “Silibinin prevents amyloid b peptide-induced memory impairment and oxidative stress in mice,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 157, no. 7, pp. 1270–1277, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. Sangeetha, S. Aranganathan, J. Panneerselvam, P. Shanthi, G. Rama, and N. Nalini, “Oral supplementation of silibinin prevents colon carcinogenesis in a long term preclinical model,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 643, no. 1, pp. 93–100, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. L. Kim, S. W. Kang, M. K. Kang et al., “Osteoblastogenesis and osteoprotection enhanced by flavonolignan silibinin in osteoblasts and osteoclasts,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 247–259, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. S. H. Ryou, M. S. Kang, K. I. Kim, Y. H. Kang, and J. S. Kang, “Effects of green tea or Sasa quelpaertensis bamboo leaves on plasma and liver lipids, erythrocyte Na efflux, and platelet aggregation in ovariectomized rats,” Nutrition Research Practice, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 356–361, 2012.
  19. H. Akcakaya, A. Aroymak, and S. Gokce, “A quantitative colorimetric method of measuring alkaline phosphatase activity in eukaryotic cell membranes,” Cell Biology International, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 186–190, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Liu, Q. Yuan, C. F. Li, and T. X. Huang, “Isolation and purification of silychristin, silydianin and taxifolin in the co-products of the silybin refined process from the silymarin by high-speed counter-current chromatography,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 799–804, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. I. Lee, B. H. Hsu, D. Wu, and J. S. Barrett, “Separation and characterization of silybin, isosilybin, silydianin and silychristin in milk thistle extract by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1116, no. 1-2, pp. 57–68, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. Y. W. Lee and Y. Liu, “Molecular structure and stereochemistry of silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and isosilybin B, isolated from Silybum marianum (milk thistle),” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 66, no. 9, pp. 1171–1174, 2003. View at Scopus
  23. S. Boonen, E. Rosenberg, F. Claessens, D. Vanderschueren, and S. Papapoulos, “Inhibition of cathepsin K for treatment of osteoporosis,” Current Osteoporosis Reports, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. North American Menopause Society, “The 2012 hormone therapy position statement of: the North American Menopause Society,” Menopause, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 257–271, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. E. E. Sutton and D. M. Riche, “Denosumab, a RANK ligand inhibitor, for postmenopausal women with osteoporosis,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 46, no. 7-8, pp. 1000–1009, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. J. Wu, X. Wang, H. Chiba et al., “Combined intervention of soy isoflavone and moderate exercise prevents body fat elevation and bone loss in ovariectomized mice,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 942–948, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. M. Sacco, J. M. Y. Jiang, S. Reza-López, D. W. L. Ma, L. U. Thompson, and W. E. Ward, “Flaxseed combined with low-dose estrogen therapy preserves bone tissue in ovariectomized rats,” Menopause, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 545–554, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Schümann, J. Prockl, A. K. Kiemer, A. M. Vollmar, R. Bang, and G. Tiegs, “Silibinin protects mice from T cell-dependent liver injury,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 333–340, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. J. Boyle, W. S. Simonet, and D. L. Lacey, “Osteoclast differentiation and activation,” Nature, vol. 423, no. 6937, pp. 337–342, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus