About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 930281, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/930281
Research Article

Photo-Induced Antitumor Effect of 3,6-Bis(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridinium) Carbazole Diiodide

1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10002, Taiwan
2Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40254, Taiwan
3Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
4Department of Otolaryngology, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei 10002, Taiwan

Received 21 July 2012; Accepted 6 September 2012

Academic Editor: Tobias Kiesslich

Copyright © 2013 Ya-Shuan Chou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. W. Shay and S. Bacchetti, “A survey of telomerase activity in human cancer,” European Journal of Cancer Part A, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 787–791, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. W. Shay and W. E. Wright, “Telomerase: a target for cancer therapeutics,” Cancer Cell, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 257–265, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. C. Chang, I. C. Kuo, J. J. Lin et al., “A novel carbazole derivative, BMVC: a potential antitumor agent and fluorescence marker of cancer cells.,” Chemistry & Biodiversity, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 1377–1384, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. C. Chang, I. C. Kuo, I. F. Ling et al., “Detection of quadruplex DNA structures in human telomeres by a fluorescent carbazole derivative,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 76, no. 15, pp. 4490–4494, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. C. Chang, J. Y. Wu, C. W. Chien et al., “A fluorescent carbazole derivative: high sensitivity for quadruplex DNA,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 75, no. 22, pp. 6177–6183, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. C. Huang, C. C. Chang, P. J. Lou et al., “G-quadruplex stabilizer 3,6-bis(1-methyl-4-vinylpyridinium)carbazole diiodide induces accelerated senescence and inhibits tumorigenic properties in cancer cells,” Molecular Cancer Research, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 955–964, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Bhuvaneswari, Y. Y. Gan, K. C. Soo, and M. Olivo, “The effect of photodynamic therapy on tumor angiogenesis,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 66, no. 14, pp. 2275–2283, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. R. Weishaupt, C. J. Gomer, and T. J. Dougherty, “Identification of singlet oxygen as the cytotoxic agent in photo inactivation of a murine tumor,” Cancer Research, vol. 36, no. 7, 1976. View at Scopus
  9. T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson et al., “Photodynamic therapy,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 90, no. 12, pp. 889–905, 1998. View at Scopus
  10. A. D. Garg, D. V. Krysko, P. Vandenabeele, and P. Agostinis, “DAMPs and PDT-mediated photo-oxidative stress: exploring the unknown,” Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 670–680, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. C. A. Issa and M. Manela-Azulay, “Photodynamic therapy: a review of the literature and image documentation,” Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 501–511, 2010. View at Scopus
  12. C. C. Chang, M. C. Hsieh, J. C. Lin, and T. C. Chang, “Selective photodynamic therapy based on aggregation-induced emission enhancement of fluorescent organic nanoparticles,” Biomaterials, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 897–906, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. N. Houba-Herin, C. M. Calberg-Bacq, and A. Van De Vorst, “Photodynamic activity of acridine orange: peroxide radical induction in DNA and synthetic polynucleotides,” International Journal of Radiation Biology, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 487–495, 1984. View at Scopus
  14. C. T. Chu, D. J. Levinthal, S. M. Kulich, E. M. Chalovich, and D. B. DeFranco, “Oxidative neuronal injury: the dark side of ERK1/2,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 271, no. 11, pp. 2060–2066, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. B. Vegh, K. M. Solntsev, M. K. Kuimova et al., “Reactive oxygen species in photochemistry of the red fluorescent protein “killer Red”,” Chemical Communications, vol. 47, no. 17, pp. 4887–4889, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncology, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 497–508, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. C. Chang, J. Y. Wu, and T. C. Chang, “A carbazole derivative synthesis for stabilizing the quadruplex structure,” Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 185–188, 2003. View at Scopus
  18. L. G. Bermúdez-Humarán, N. G. Cortes-Perez, F. Lefèvre et al., “A novel mucosal vaccine based on live lactococci expressing E7 antigen and IL-12 induces systemic and mucosal immune responses and protects mice against human papillomavirus type 16-induced tumors,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 175, no. 11, pp. 7297–7302, 2005. View at Scopus
  19. T. C. Chang and C. C. Chang, “Detection of G-quadruplexes in cells and investigation of G-quadruplex structure of d(T2AG3)4 in K+ solution by a carbazole derivative: BMVC,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 608, pp. 183–206, 2010. View at Scopus
  20. J. O'Brien, I. Wilson, T. Orton, and F. Pognan, “Investigation of the Alamar Blue (resazurin) fluorescent dye for the assessment of mammalian cell cytotoxicity,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 267, no. 17, pp. 5421–5426, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. M. Busch, H. W. Wang, E. P. Wileyto, G. Yu, and R. M. Bunte, “Increasing damage to tumor blood vessels during motexafin lutetium-pdt through use of low fluence rate,” Radiation Research, vol. 174, no. 3, pp. 331–340, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. K. Lee, C. Whitehurst, M. L. Pantelides, and J. V. Moore, “An interstitial light assembly for photodynamic therapy in prostatic carcinoma,” BJU International, vol. 84, no. 7, pp. 821–826, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. I. Fielding, G. A. Buonaccorsi, A. J. MacRobert, A. M. Hanby, M. R. Hetzel, and S. G. Bown, “Fine-needle interstitial photodynamic therapy of the lung parenchyma: photosensitizer distribution and morphologic effects of treatment,” Chest, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 502–510, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. Aliaga, A. Aspée, and J. C. Scaiano, “A new method to study antioxidant capability: hydrogen transfer from phenols to a prefluorescent nitroxide,” Organic Letters, vol. 5, no. 22, pp. 4145–4148, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. E. Bulina, D. M. Chudakov, O. V. Britanova et al., “A genetically encoded photosensitizer,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 95–99, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. E. Bulina, K. A. Lukyanov, O. V. Britanova, D. Onichtchouk, S. Lukyanov, and D. M. Chudakov, “Chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI) using the phototoxic fluorescent protein KillerRed,” Nature Protocols, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 947–953, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Roy, P. Carpentier, D. Bourgeois, and M. Field, “Diffusion pathways of oxygen species in the phototoxic fluorescent protein KillerRed,” Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1342–1350, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. V. H. Fingar, T. J. Wieman, and P. S. Haydon, “The effects of thrombocytopenia on vessel stasis and macromolecular leakage after photodynamic therapy using photofrin,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 513–517, 1997. View at Scopus
  29. A. Policard, “Etude sur les aspects offerts par des tumeurs experimentalees examinees a la lumikere de Wood,” Comptes Rendus des Seances et Memoires de la Societe de Biologie, vol. 91, pp. 1423–1428, 1924.
  30. L. Leive, “A nonspecific increase in permeability in Escherichia coli produced by Edta,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 745–750, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, C. You, T. C. Hsiao, and C. Y. Wang, “Time-resolved autofluorescence spectroscopy for classifying normal and premalignant oral tissues,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 37–45, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. T. Lee, T. MacE, and E. A. Repasky, “Hypoxia-driven immunosuppression: a new reason to use thermal therapy in the treatment of cancer?” International Journal of Hyperthermia, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 232–246, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus