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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 930713, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/930713
Review Article

Stem Cell Therapy in Bladder Dysfunction: Where Are We? And Where Do We Have to Go?

1Department of Urology, Soonchunhyang School of Medicine, Seoul 140-743, Republic of Korea
2National Primate Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Ochang 363-883, Republic of Korea
3Medical Research Institute, Chung-Ang School of Medicine, Seoul 156-756, Republic of Korea

Received 15 June 2013; Revised 7 August 2013; Accepted 7 August 2013

Academic Editor: Ken-ichi Isobe

Copyright © 2013 Jae Heon Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

To date, stem cell therapy for the bladder has been conducted mainly on an experimental basis in the areas of bladder dysfunction. The therapeutic efficacy of stem cells was originally thought to be derived from their ability to differentiate into various cell types. Studies about stem cell therapy for bladder dysfunction have been limited to an experimental basis and have been less focused than bladder regeneration. Bladder dysfunction was listed in MESH as “urinary bladder neck obstruction”, “urinary bladder, overactive”, and “urinary bladder, neurogenic”. Using those keywords, several articles were searched and studied. The bladder dysfunction model includes bladder outlet obstruction, cryoinjured, diabetes, ischemia, and spinal cord injury. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs), bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), and skeletal muscle derived stem cells (SkMSCs) are used for transplantation to treat bladder dysfunction. The main mechanisms of stem cells to reconstitute or restore bladder dysfunction are migration, differentiation, and paracrine effects. The aim of this study is to review the stem cell therapy for bladder dysfunction and to provide the status of stem cell therapy for bladder dysfunction.