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Figure 3: Effects of training on gene expression of regulatory factors of muscle protein synthesis and degradation and downstream targets. (a) and (b) show typical examples of cross-sections from the proximal (i.e., high oxidative compartment) and distal regions (i.e., low oxidative compartment), respectively, of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle, which were stained for succinate dehydrogenase activity. These images demonstrate that the proximal region predominantly consists of high oxidative fibres whereas the distal region mainly consists of low oxidative fibres. RNA was extracted from these regions. Effects of peak power training alone (PT) and peak power training in combination with endurance training (PET) are shown on the gene expression of IGF-1Ea (c), myostatin (d), α-skeletal actin (e), MuRF-1 (f), and MAFbx (g) in the high (black bars) and low (white bars) oxidative compartments of GM. mRNA expression is relative to 18S rRNA. All values are mean ± SE. Bars indicate 1000 μm. *= significant difference between the groups ( ). IGF-1Ea: insulin-like growth factor 1Ea, MAFbx: muscle atrophy F-box, MuRF-1: muscle ring finger 1.