- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 938937, 6 pages
High Genetic Diversity of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis Clinical Isolates by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multilocus Sequence Typing from a Hospital in Malaysia
1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaakob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
Received 26 February 2013; Revised 26 April 2013; Accepted 27 April 2013
Academic Editor: Isabel Sá-Correia
Copyright © 2013 Poh Leng Weng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- R. R. Facklam and L. M. Teixeira, “Enterococcus,” in Topley & Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections, L. Lollier, A. Balows, and M. Sussman, Eds., pp. 669–682, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 9th edition, 1998.
- D. R. Schaberg, D. H. Culver, and R. P. Gaynes, “Major trends in the microbial etiology of nosocomial infection,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 91, no. 3B, pp. 72S–75S, 1991.
- V. Shankar, A. S. Baghdayan, M. M. Huycke, G. Lindahl, and M. S. Gilmore, “Infection-derived Enterococcus faecalis strains are enriched in esp, a gene encoding a novel surface protein,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 193–200, 1999.
- I. G. Sava, E. Heikens, and J. Huebner, “Pathogenesis and immunity in enterococcal infections,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 533–540, 2010.
- J. Top, R. Willems, and M. Bonten, “Emergence of CC17 Enterococcus faecium: from commensal to hospital-adapted pathogen,” FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 297–308, 2008.
- C. D. Salgado, “The risk of developing a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus bloodstream infection for colonized patients,” American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. S175.e5–S175.e8, 2008.
- C. R. Mahon, D. C. Lehman, and G. Manuselis, Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology, Saunders, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 2007.
- R. Kariyama, R. Mitsuhata, J. W. Chow, D. B. Clewell, and H. Kumon, “Simple and reliable multiplex PCR assay for surveillance isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 3092–3095, 2000.
- Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, Seventeenth Informational Supplement M100-S17, vol. 27, CLSI, Wayne, Pa, USA, 2007.
- A. P. Magiorakos, A. Srinivasan, R. B. Carey et al., “Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 268–281, 2012.
- M. Talebi, F. Rahimi, M. Katouli, R. Möllby, and M. R. Pourshafie, “Epidemiological link between wastewater and human vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates,” Current Microbiology, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 468–473, 2008.
- M. A. Khan, M. van der wal, D. J. Farrell et al., “Analysis of VanA vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from Saudi Arabian hospitals reveals the presence of clonal cluster 17 and two new Tn 1546 lineage types,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 279–283, 2008.
- S. B. Hunter, P. Vauterin, M. A. Lambert-Fair et al., “Establishment of a universal size standard strain for use with the pulsenet standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocols: converting the national databases to the new size standard,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 1045–1050, 2005.
- W. L. Homan, D. Tribe, S. Poznanski et al., “Multilocus sequence typing scheme for Enterococcus faecium,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1963–1971, 2002.
- P. Ruiz-Garbajosa, M. J. M. Bonten, D. A. Robinson et al., “Multilocus sequence typing scheme for Enterococcus faecalis reveals hospital-adapted genetic complexes in a background of high rates of recombination,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 2220–2228, 2006.
- R. Mato, F. Almeida, R. Pires, P. Rodrigues, T. Ferreira, and I. Santos-Sanches, “Assessment of high-level gentamicin and glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium clonal structure in a Portuguese hospital over a 3-year period,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 855–859, 2009.
- R. Jureen, J. Top, S. C. Mohn, S. Harthug, N. Langeland, and R. J. L. Willems, “Molecular characterization of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates from hospitalized patients in Norway,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 2330–2336, 2003.
- P. A. Miskeen and L. Deodhar, “Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterococcus species from urinary tract infections,” Journal of Association of Physicians of India, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 378–381, 2002.
- Y. Cetinkaya, P. Falk, and C. G. Mayhall, “Vancomycin-resistant enterococci,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 686–707, 2000.
- B. E. Murray, “Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 342, no. 10, pp. 710–721, 1999.
- E. Aslangul, L. Massias, A. Meulemans et al., “Acquired gentamicin resistance by permeability impairment in Enterococcus faecalis,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 3615–3621, 2006.
- B. Kacmaz and A. Aksoy, “Antimicrobial resistance of enterococci in Turkey,” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 535–538, 2005.
- D. Panesso, J. Reyes, S. Rincón et al., “Molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: a prospective, multicenter study in South American hospitals,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1562–1569, 2010.
- H. Araoka, M. Kimura, and A. Yoneyama, “A surveillance of high-level gentamicin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia,” Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 433–434, 2011.
- S. Watanabe, N. Kobayashi, D. Quiñones, S. Nagashima, N. Uehara, and N. Watanabe, “Genetic diversity of enterococci harboring the high-level gentamicin resistance gene aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia or aph(2″)-Ie in a Japanese hospital,” Microbial Drug Resistance, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 185–194, 2009.
- P. L. Weng, R. A. Hamat, Y. K. Kqueen, N. Zainol, M. N. Aziz, and M. N. Shamsudin, “Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium of multi-locus sequence type 18 in Malaysia,” Medical Journal of Malaysia, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 639–640, 2012.
- A. W. Zubaidah, A. Ariza, and S. Azmi, “Hospital-acquired vancomycin-resistant Enterococci: now appearing in Kuala Lumpur Hospital,” Medical Journal of Malaysia, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 487–489, 2006.
- S. Lloyd, M. Zervos, R. Mahayni, and T. Lundstrom, “Risk factors for enterococcal urinary tract infection and colonization in a rehabilitation facility,” American Journal of Infection Control, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 35–39, 1998.
- P. A. D'Azevedo, C. A. G. Dias, and L. M. Teixeira, “Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of enterococcal isolates from southern region of Brazil,” Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 11–16, 2006.
- I. Kuhn, L. G. Burman, S. Haeggman, K. Tullus, and B. E. Murray, “Biochemical fingerprinting compared with ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of DNA for epidemiological typing of enterococci,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2812–2817, 1995.
- E. J. Feil, B. C. Li, D. M. Aanensen, W. P. Hanage, and B. G. Spratt, “eBURST: inferring patterns of evolutionary descent among clusters of related bacterial genotypes from multilocus sequence typing data,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 186, no. 5, pp. 1518–1530, 2004.
- J. F. Tomayko and B. E. Murray, “Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis isolates from intercontinental sources by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2903–2907, 1995.
- R. J. L. Willems, J. Top, M. van Santen et al., “Global spread of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from distinct nosocomial genetic complex,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 821–828, 2005.
- G. Werner, T. M. Coque, A. M. Hammerum et al., “Emergence and spread of vancomycin resistance among enterococci in Europe,” Eurosurveillance, vol. 13, no. 47, pp. 1–11, 2008.