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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 941467, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/941467
Research Article

Unmasking Snake Venom of Bothrops leucurus: Purification and Pharmacological and Structural Characterization of New PL Bleu TX-III

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil
2Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil

Received 4 September 2012; Revised 31 October 2012; Accepted 6 November 2012

Academic Editor: Laura Leiva

Copyright © 2013 Fábio André Marangoni et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Bleu TX-III was isolated from Bothrops leucurus snake venom on one-step analytical chromatography reverse phase HPLC, was homogeneous on SDS-PAGE, and was confirmed by Q-Tof Ultima API ESI/MS (TOF MS mode) mass spectrometry in 14243.8 Da. Multiple alignments of Bleu TX-III show high degree of homology with basic PLA2 myotoxins from other Bothrops venoms. Our studies on local and systemic myotoxicity “in vivo” reveal that Bleu TX-III is myotoxin with local but not systemic action due to the decrease in the plasmatic CK levels when Bleu TX-III is administrated by intravenous route in mice (dose 1 and 5 μg). And at a dose of 20 μg myotoxin behaves like a local and systemic action. Bleu TX-III induced moderate marked paw edema, evidencing the local increase in vascular permeability. The inflammatory events induced in the mice (I.M.) were investigated. The increase in the levels of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α was observed in the plasma. It is concluded that Bleu TX-III induces inflammatory events in this model. The enzymatic phospholipid hydrolysis may be relevant to these phenomena. Bothrops leucurus venom is still not extensively explored, and the knowledge of its toxins separately through the study of structure/function will contribute for a better understanding of its action mechanism.